A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 53, No 3 (2015)
Thrombophilia increases the incidence of pulmonary thrombosis significantly. Various hereditary and acquired factors are known for thromboembolism. The hereditary factors are two common genetic autosomal mutations including factor V leidan mutation and prothrombin gene mutation. A descriptive- analytical design was conducted on 60 patients with thromboembolism who met the inclusion criteria. Two groups with hereditary and acquired risk factors for thromboembolism (group A, B, each 30 people) were evaluated. All the patients of two groups were evaluated in terms of emboli associated with hereditary and acquired risk factors. Association of thromboembolism risk factors' with pulmonary hypertension were studied at the beginning of the study and six months after the treatment then the results of two groups were compared. Among participants, 31 (56.4%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 44.4±14 years, ranging between 23-75 years. Significant association was observed between the stability of the blood clot in pulmonary vessel, six months after the treatment with genetic risk factors (P=0.03). However, no significant association was between pulmonary hypertension and hereditary and acquired risk factors (P=0.24). Based on the significant association between the hereditary risk factors and pulmonary emboli, by taking special prevention and therapy measurements (e.g. genetic engineering), some pulmonary and mortality complications can be prevented and the patient himself and health care system would benefit from this issue.
Methylprednisolone (MP) has been widely used as a standard therapeutic agent for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Because of its controversial useful effects, the combination of MP and other pharmacological agents to enhance neuroprotective effects is desirable. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been shown to have neuroprotective and antihyperalgesic effects. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of combining MP and MgSO4, on neuropathic pain and functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in male rats. A total of 48 adult male rats (weight 300-350 g) were used. After laminectomy, complete SCI was achieved by compression of the spinal cord for one minute with aneurysm clips. Single doses of Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), (600 mg/kg), Methylprednisolone (MP), (30 mg/kg) or combining MgSO4 and MP were injected intraperitoneally. Prior to surgery and during four weeks of study Tail flick latency (TFL) and BBB (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan) score and the acetone drop test were evaluated. In mean values of BBB score, a significant difference was observed in SCI+veh compared with other groups (P<0.05). Mean TFL also was significantly higher in SCI+veh compared with other groups (P<0.05). Mean acetone drop test score and weight were significantly different in MgSO4, MP and combining MgSO4 and MP treated groups compared with SCI+veh group (P<0.05). These findings revealed that MP, MgSO4 and combining MgSO4 and MP treatment can attenuate neuropathic pains following SCI in rats include: thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. They also can yield better improvement in motor function and decrease weight loss after SCI in rats compared with the control group.
Profound bradycardia during eye surgery is a potentially serious event. In clinical practice oculo-cardiac reflex (OCR) is most often encountered during squint surgery. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of OCR and prove the effect of ketamine as an induction drug and anticholinergic premedication (atropine) to prevent OCR. This study comprised 90 patients (aged 4-10 years) operated for squint surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into three groups. Using block randomization, each patient enrolled in one of the three groups based on organized random table prepared by statistician. Group K received ketamine as an induction drug, Group A was premedicated with intravenous injection of atropine and Group C did not receive any premedication. Patients were monitored during operation for any bradycardia or dysrhythmias. The observed data showed occurrence of 63% OCR in Group C as compared to 43% in group A and only 20% in Group K. Current study showed that induction with ketamine in the patients of squint surgery under general anesthesia definitely obtunds OCR and prevents any untoward effects of dysrhythmias during eye surgery.
The association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and concentration of folate or homocysteine are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of HP infection on folate and homocysteine concentrations in patients infected with HP and healthy participants. We also assessed dietary intakes of folate, vitamins B6 and B12 in two groups. In this case-control study, 44 participants with HP-infection and 46 healthy controls were studied. Participants were recruited from those referred to the central laboratory of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Blood samples were collected to determine serum folate and homocysteine levels. The presence of both IgG and IgA in serum was considered as HP positive. Dietary intakes were assessed in all participants by 24-hour dietary recalls by trained interviewers for three days. The mean concentration of serum folate was significantly lower in HP-positive patients than in controls (8.49 nmol/L vs. 10.95 nmol/L, respectively; P=0.01). Although the mean concentration of serum homocysteine differed between groups, statistical significance was missed (HP infected patients: 9.35 µmol/L; healthy participants: 8.96 µmol/L; P=0.064). Macro- and micronutrient intakes showed no significant difference between participants with and without HP infection. In logistic regression models, there was a negative correlation between folate concentration and HP infection even after controlling for confounding factors (OR=0.82; CI95%=0.79-0.97). In this study, authors showed that a negative association presents between HP infection and serum folate concentrations, but the homocysteine status was not differed significantly between HP-positive and HP-negative participants.
Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death. However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.
Chronic total occlusion (CTO) intervention is still a challenging problem. The aim of this study is to determine factors that affect PCI results.The study was conducted on 72 patients in two centers. CTO angioplasty was done by the antegrade approach from the femoral and/or radial approach. The role of age, gender, anatomical variations such as calcification, length of the lesion, proximal bending, retrograde filling and occluded coronary artery (LAD, CCK or RCA), and wires were assessed. The success rate was 79.6%, and presence of calcification was an important factor in CTO PCI. Operator's experience, use of appropriate equipment and calcification are important factors in predicting a successful PCI.
Ticks are vectors of some important arthropod-borne diseases in both fields of veterinary and medicine, such as Lyme, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and some types of encephalitis as well as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). Iran is known as one of the main foci of CCHF in west of Asia. This study was conducted in DarrehShahr County because of the development of animal husbandry in this area to detect the fauna and viral infection of the hard ticks of livestock. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2011-2012 with random sampling in four villages. A sample of ticks was subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of viral infection. During the study period, 592 Ixodidae ticks were collected and identified as seven species of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. sanguineus. More than 20% of these ticks were examined to detect the genome of CCHF virus while 6.6% were positive. All species of Hyalomma were found to be positive. A high rate of livestock was found to be infected with hard ticks, which can act as the vectors of the CCHF disease. Regarding infection of all five Hyalomma species captured in this area, this genus should be considered as the main vector of CCHF. Planning control program can be performed based on the obtained data on seasonal activity of Ixodidae to prevent animal infestation as well as to reduce the risk of CCHF transmission.
Curve flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was one of the major concerns of spinal surgeons since the evolution of surgical correction techniques. In this respect, many tried to identify which criteria denote more rigid curve. In the present study, we aimed toward determining important factors influencing AIS curve flexibility on supine bending films. We assessed radiographs of 100 patients with AIS for direction of curves, number of involved vertebrae, apical vertebral translation and rotation, magnitude of main thoracic curve and T5-T12 kyphosis. Statistical analysis performed via stepwise linear regression model with these variables plus age and sex against flexibility index. According to regression analysis, there was a clear relationship between flexibility indexes (FI) and magnitude of main thoracic curve at all (P<0.001). When we consider flexible curves (FI>50%) against rigid curves, apical vertebral rotation was a major determinant of curve flexibility also (P<0.001). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves with larger Cobb's angle and apical vertebral rotation show less flexibility on supine bending films.
Anemia is one of the main conditions that impose an adverse impact on the socioeconomic state of any country; however, evidence on the prevalence of anemia is scant in Northeastern Iran. This study was conducted to determine the overall and age- and sex-specific prevalence of anemia in the city of Mashhad, Iran. In a cross-sectional, population-based survey, 1675 individuals aged 1-90 years (29.1±18.5 years) were selected from approximately 2.4 million residents by a multistage cluster sampling method during May to September 2009. Blood samples were evaluated to determine erythrocyte indices and anemia was defined according to hemoglobin (Hb) levels based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The prevalence of anemia was 9.7% with considerable difference between both sexes; 6.2% and 12.7% in males and females, respectively (P<0.001). The higher prevalence of anemia was detected in females of 15-54 and ≥ 65 years old (16% and 12.5%, respectively). However, the higher rates were observed in males 65 years and older as well as boys below 5 years old (16.3% and 14.6%, respectively). Current findings show that anemia is a considerable public health problem in the population of Mashhad, Iran, especially among the pre-school children, adult women and the elderly. Great attention should be paid to the pre-school boys who are more affected by anemia than what was previously assumed.
Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter.
Ocular involvement is seen in approximately 25% of patients with sarcoidosis. Uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation, but sarcoidosis may involve any part of the eye. Orbital manifestations of sarcoidosis are uncommon with few series in the literature. A 65-year-old woman presented with redness of the right eye and painless, unilateral eyelid swelling. Orbital scanning revealed mass infiltrating the soft tissue of the inferior right orbital quadrant. Biopsy results showed nodular, noncaseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis. The complete systemic workup revealed systemic manifestations of sarcoidosis at the time of examination with hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathies noted on CT scan. The orbital surgical treatment was followed by systemic prednisone therapy with good response. Although rare, orbital sarcoidosis must be considered in the evaluation of orbital tumors in elderly patients. A search for systemic findings should be undertaken and appropriate therapy should be instituted.
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