Ahmadreza Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
Vol 53, No 10 (2015)
Obesity is one of the main public health problems which underlie many chronic illnesses and socioeconomic difficulties. According to the literature review, there are limited data on the prevalence of obesity in different parts of Iran as well as its trend and prevalence among different age and gender groups. The aim of this study was to estimate the obesity prevalence in Iran using meta-analysis. All the corresponding articles published in the external and internal journals, final reports of research projects, articles of related congresses and the reference index of the correlated papers published between 1995 and 2010 were collected via the electronic research engines (PubMed, Scopus, SID, Magiran, IranMedex). Data were analyzed using meta-analysis (random effects model) and meta-regression). A total of 144 articles with the sample size of 377858 people (134588 males and 164858 females) were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of obesity in populations above the age of 18 was estimated as 21.7% (CI 95%: 18.5% - 25%) and in populations below 18 as 6.1% (CI 95%: 6.8%-5.4%). Meta-regression analysis showed an ascending trend in the prevalence of obesity in Iran. The prevalence rates of obesity according to the BMI index, NCHC and percentile above 95 were 17.4%, 7.6% and7.4%, respectively. The BMI mean was 19.3 in populations below the age of 18 (CI 95%: 17-21.6) and 25.2 in those above the age of 18 (CI 95%: 27.1-23.3). Considering the increasing rate of obesity in Iran and its effects on the public health, corresponding health authorities should revise the obesity preventive programs and, using public health interventions, reduce the rate of obesity in the country.
Nowadays in the world, tuberculosis is the second largest killer of adults after HIV. Due to the location of presidios that is mostly located in hazardous zones soldiers and army personnel are considered high risk, therefore we decided to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis status in this group of people. This was a cross-sectional descriptive research that studied the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in soldiers and military personnel in the last 15 years in tuberculosis and lung disease research center at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population consisted of all the soldiers and military personnel. The detection method in this study was based on microscopic examination following Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and in Leuven Stein Johnson culturing. Descriptive statistics was used for statistical analysis and statistical values less than 0.05 were considered significant. By review information in this center since the 1988-2013 with 72 military personnel suffering from tuberculosis, it was revealed that among them 30 women, 42 men, 14 soldiers, 29 family members, and 29 military personnel are pointed. A significant correlation was found between TB rates among military personnel and their families. Although in recent years, the national statistics indicate a decline of tuberculosis, but the results of our study showed that TB is still a serious disease that must comply with the first symptoms of tuberculosis in military personnel and their families that should be diagnosed as soon as possible.
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by an infection and remains as a major challenge in health care. Many studies have reported that pioglitazone may display anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of subchronic treatment with pioglitazone on high-grade septic mice survival and nitrergic system involvement. Diffused sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery in male NMRI mice (20-30 g). Pioglitazone (5,10 and 20 mg/kg) was administered by gavage daily for 5 days prior to surgery. Nitric oxide involvement was assessed by sub-chronic administration of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME and a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine. TNF-α and IL-1β plasma levels were measured by ELISA. Pioglitazone (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly improved survival rate in septic mice. The chronic intraperitoneally co-administration of L-NAME (0.5 mg/kg, daily) or aminoguanidine (1 mg/kg, daily) with a daily dose of pioglitazone, 5 mg/kg, significantly increased the survival rate. This survival improving effect was accompanied by a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β plasma levels. In conclusion, sub-chronic pioglitazone treatment can improve survival in mouse sepsis model by CLP. Inhibition of nitric oxide release, probably through inducible nitric oxide synthase at least in part is responsible for this effect. Suppression of TNF-α and IL-1β could be another mechanism in pioglitazone-induced survival improving effect in septic mice.
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a curable entity frequently encountered by neurosurgeons. The present study was conducted to explore expert opinion and common practice in Iran. Besides, a Review of randomized clinical trials in literature was performed. A questionnaire including six questions discussing major aspects of practice on CSDH, with multiple choices was designed. A pilot study was performed for reliability analysis of the questionnaire. A total of 100 neurosurgeons were selected randomly from the members of Iranian Association of Neurological Surgeons. Frequency of answers to each item, differences in response rates and correlation of various categories were analyzed using Chi-square statistics. The mean duration of experience was 15.4 ± 5 years, with a range of 10 to 37 years. The most common initial procedure of choice was burr-hole drainage (64%). At recurrent cases, surgical approach was changed to craniotomy at one-third of those treated initially with burr-hole drainage. The participants believed that surgical technique was predictive of outcome and recurrence. Burr-hole without drainage was used by less expert neurosurgeons (mean 12.5 ± 6), however, burr-hole drainage was the dominant technique at more than 15 years of experience and craniectomy was used only by participants with more than 30 years of experience (10%). Irrigation was used by most of the neurosurgeons (87.5%) in combination with drainage and burr-hole. The majority of participants used flat position at the postoperative period. At the current study, the pattern of management for CSDH was similar to other reports at literature suggesting the burr-hole drainage and irrigation as optimal treatment. Individualized decision-making could be made at challenging cases.
In this study we evaluated the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans for reduction of crisis. In 40 patients with Buerger's disease daily sleepiness and risk of Obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated using the Epworth sleeping scale (ESS) and the Stop-Bang score. An Apnea-link device was used for evaluation of chest motion, peripheral oxygenation, and nasal airflow during night-time sleep. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and respiratory tdisurbance index were used for Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis. All subjects were cigarette smokers and 80% were opium addicted. The prevalence of Obstructive sleep apnea (AHI>5) was 80%, but incidence of Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (AHI>5 + ESS≥10) was 5% (2/40). There was no association between duration or frequency of hospitalization and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (P=0.74 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, no correlation between ESS and Stop-Bang scores and AHI was observed (P=0.58 and 0.41, respectively). There was an inverse correlation between smoking rate and AHI (P=0.032, r = −0.48). We did not find an association between Buerger's disease and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the AHI was high (80%) and daily sleepiness was low. The negative correlation of smoking with AHI and on the other hand daily napping in addiction may be caused by the absence of a clear relationship between Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and Buerger's disease.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in patients with operable stage II and III rectal cancers within one or two months after surgery, who has been treated pre-operatively with short course radiotherapy. Twenty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma, consecutively referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital from March 2009 to March 2010, were selected for the study after staging by endorectal ultrasound and CT of abdomen, pelvis, and chest; and if they had inclusion criteria for short course schedule, they were treated with radiotherapy alone at 2500 cGy for 5 sessions, and then they were referred to the surgical service for operation one week later. They were visited there by a surgeon unaware of the research who completed a questionnaire about pre-operative, operative, and post-operative complications. Of 28 patients, 25 patients underwent either APR or LAR surgery with TME. One patient developed transient anal pain grade I and one patient had dysuria grade I; they were improved in subsequent follow-up. Short course schedule can be performed carefully in patients with staged rectal cancer without concerning about serious complications. This shorter treatment schedule is cost-effective and would be more convenient for patients due to fewer trips to the hospital and the main treatment, i.e. operating the patient, will be done with the shortest time the following diagnosis.
Migraine is a common and incapacitating neurologic disorder manifesting with episodic moderate to a severe headache and other symptoms such as photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting. Triptans and ergot compounds have been used as treatment options for an acute migraine headache for many years. Triptans are considered the first line of treatment in patients with moderate to a severe migraine. Although the triptans are commonly used at any time during a migraine attack; they are more efficacious when used in the early stages of a migraine. Intravenous valproic acid has been shown to be well tolerated, safe, and with rapid onset of action in patients with acute moderate to severe and even refractory migraine. Sodium valproate is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved drug for prophylaxis of a migraine with and without aura. In this study, the main goal was to compare the effectiveness of sumatriptan versus valproate in an acute migraine. A randomized clinical trial including 37 patients with an acute migraine was considered to compare the effectiveness of sumatriptan versus valproate. The patients were divided into two groups. In first group, 6 mg subcutaneous of sumatriptan and in the second group 15 mg/Kg of valproate was administered. The outcomes including pain and drug adverse effects were compared across the groups. A total of 37 patients (7 male and 30 female) were evaluated in two groups. The difference between two groups regarding sex and age was not significant (P>0.05). The mean pain scores reduced from 8.3 to 4.7 and from 8.3 to 2.2 after one hour of treatment in sumatriptan and valproate groups, respectively. Response to treatment in valproate group was faster and more effective than sumatriptan group (P < 0.05).The results indicated that valproate was more effective and with the faster response in patients with an acute migraine in comparison with sumatriptan without any recurrence and remarkable side effects.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thiopental sodium with that of midazolam-ketamine on relieving agitation after tonsillectomy in children. In a clinical trial, 50 children aged 5-10 years, candidates for tonsillectomy, were randomly divided into two 25-member groups. In the first group, thiopental sodium 5mg/kg/IV, and in the second group combination of midazolam 0.01 mg/kg/IV and ketamine 1 mg/kg/IV were used to induce anesthesia. The level of sedation was assessed after surgery with the Ramsay scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of heart rate, arterial oxygen pressure (PO2), and duration of anesthesia. The Ramsay sedation score was significantly higher in the thiopental sodium group than in the midazolam-ketamine group (P=0.01). Thiopental sodium can be more effective than the combination of midazolam-ketamine for controlling agitation after tonsillectomy in children.
Heparin is frequently used in different clinical settings to reduce the coagulating ability of the blood. Because of probable adverse effects owing to heparin therapy and regarding variability of patients’ responses to heparin, which make it very unreliable, it seems prudent to monitor meticulously its effects on the human body. There are a lot of laboratory tests to watch its effects on the body for example; aPTT and ROTEM are the most widely used tests that are performed today. We aimed to compare the aPTT test results against changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM test due to heparin administration. This study was conducted on 45 critically ill patients who needed to receive heparin according to their clinical status. All patients received 550 to 1500 unit heparin per hour (on average 17.5 unit heparin per kilogram weight). While the patients were under infusion of heparin, two blood samples (5 ml) were taken from a newly established cubital vein, just five hours after commencement of heparin therapy. One sample was used for aPTT and the other one for ROTEM. The correlation between aPTT and the changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM with heparin dosage and infusion was the primary outcome. The correlation between heparin therapy and the changes of other parameters like MCF, CFT, and a number of platelets were the secondary outcome of the study. The only significant correlation was between changes of CT and aPTT (P=0.000). The other variables were not correlated. Changes of CT parameter of ROTEM test can be used for monitoring of reduced coagulability during heparin infusion instead of aPTT test.
Motor vehicle and falling down are responsible for the most number of traumatic injuries. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of traumatic brain injury among accident and falling down cases. In this analytical cross- sectional study, data were collected from the records of cadavers who died due to accident or falling down and referred to Kahrizak dissection hall, Tehran forensic medicine organization during 2013. A total of 237 subjects (183 (77.2%) accident and 54 (22.8%) falling down) with a mean age of 35.62 (SD=15.75) were evaluated. A number of 213 (89.9%) were male. From accident group, scalp injury was seen in 146 (79.8%), scalp abrasion in 122 (66.7%), scalp laceration in 104 (56.8%), sub skull bruising in 176 (96.3%), skull fracture in 119 (65%), hemorrhage in 166 (90.7%), Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) in 155 (84.7%), Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 161 (88%), Epidural hemorrhage (EDH) in 41 (22.4%), contusion in 140 (76.5%), and skull base fracture in 140 (76.5%) of cases. In falling down group scalp injury was seen in 42 (77.8%) cadavers, scalp abrasion in 38 (70.4%), scalp laceration in 30 (55.6%), sub skull bruising in 49 (90.7%), skull fracture in 39 (72.2%), Hemorrhage in 49 (90.7%), SDH in 43 (79.6%), SAH in 47 (87%), EDH in 10 (18.5%), contusion in 33 (61.1%), and skull base fracture in 39 (72.2%) of cases. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P Value> 0.05). Accident and falling down had no difference in terms of any injury or hemorrhage.
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a peroxisomal disorder with a multiple congenital anomalies, characterized by stereotypical facies, profound hypotonia, organ involvement including cerebral, retinal, hepatic, and renal. Herein, a 3-month-old female with ZS is presented who was referred because of increased liver enzymes (subclinical hepatitis), which was detected in work-up of her neck cyst, severe hypotonia, and abnormal facies. An increased concentration of very long chain fatty acid in lipid profile was detected. ZS should be considered in the list of differential diagnosis in infants with stereotypical phenotype, neurodevelopmental delay, and severe hypotonia in association with liver and other organs involvement.
Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) require biochemical or genetic investigations for being diagnosed. In some cases, however, the diagnosis can be suspected upon the syndromic phenotype or upon clinical presentation and family history, as in the following case. The patient was a 74-year-old male admitted for worsening of pre-existing left-sided ptosis and ophthalmoparesis after a birthday party. The history was positive for arterial hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction, diabetes-type 2, mild renal insufficiency, thyroiditis, and polyneuropathy. Instrumental investigations additionally revealed hepatopathy, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, bifascicular block, white matter lesions, and subacute stroke. Systolic dysfunction resolved upon adequate cardiac treatment. On hospital day 11 the patient suddenly developed asystole. He was successfully resuscitated but died a few hours later from acute myocardial infarction. Surprisingly, a more extensive family history was positive for myopathy (patient, brother, daughter), neuropathy (patient), hypoacusis (patient), Parkinson syndrome (mother), spasticity (son), diabetes (patient, son), renal failure (patient), and generalized atherosclerosis (patient). The individual and family history was strongly suggestive of an MID. In conclusion, individual and family history may strongly suggest MID. Phenotypic variability may be high between family members affected by an MID. MID may be associated with an increasing atherosclerotic risk lastly resulting in coronary heart disease and death.
Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation) including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy). In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery) due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills) under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.