A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 52, No 6 (2014)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is a clinically heterogeneous disorder especially in terms of disease severity. Current investigations suggest that genes and gene-gene interactions not only influence on susceptibility to MS but also affect the disease severity. In this study, we investigated the contribution of the HLADRB1*1501 allele and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CD24 gene and also combined genotypes of the HLADRB1*1501 and CD24 SNP to disease severity in Iranian MS patients. We have reported previously that the HLA- DRB1*1501 allele and the CD24v/v genotype associated with disease susceptibility and some other studies proposed that HLA-DRB1*1501 allele be associated with MS severity. In this study, the results showed a significant difference in the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) of the nine different genotypes (F=2.838, P=0.007). Subsequent analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the MSSS between the MS patients who were carriers of HLA-DRB1*1501/1501 and those who were not carriers of HLA-DRB1*1501/1501 genotypes (P=0.04). Moreover, the MS patients carrying combined genotypes of the HLA- DRB1*1501/x-CD24 v/v had statistically severe disease than the patients who did not carry the HLA- DRB1*1501- CD24 v/v (P=0.047). In conclusion, our findings suggest that, HLA-DRB1*1501/1501 and bigenic genotypes of the HLA- DRB1*1501/x- CD24 v/v may influence on disease severity in Iranian MS patients.
Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is one of most common causes of nosocomial and community acquired infections. The fluoroquinolones are an important class of antibiotics that used to treat infections caused by S. aureus. Today, a significant increase in the rate of ciprofloxacin resistance in methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains is concerning. The norA efflux pump is considered as contributors to antibiotic resistance. Here, we aimed to evaluate the expression of norA efflux pump in the presence of hexahydroquinoline derivative in methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. We were determined minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin and hexahydroquinoline derivative and their combination by broth microdilution method against ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. The expression of the norA efflux pump gene was evaluated by quantitative Real-time PCR. This study showed that minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the presence of hexahydroquinoline derivative in comparison to ciprofloxacin were decreased. Quantitative Real-time PCR identified the increased expression of norA efflux pump gene in methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus strain. The increased expression of norA efflux pump gene may have resulted in the effort of S. aureus to survive. The results showed that the hexahydroquinoline derivative enhanced the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin against methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. Therefore, the derivatives may be used as inhibitors of antibiotic resistance for combination therapy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of adding low-dose hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), as an LH active supplement, to a GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques. In this parallel-group randomized clinical trial, 137 infertile female outpatients aged 20 - 39 years were randomized into two groups: hCG group and non-hCG group. All patients received r-FSH (150-300 IU) and then a GnRH-antagonist, Cetrorelix (0.25 mg/day). Concomitantly with Cetrorelix, patients in the hCG group received low-dose hCG (200 IU daily), but the patients in the non-hCG group did not. 10,000 IU Urinary hCG (10,000 IU) was injected to all patients, and ICSI was performed after oocyte retrieval. The primary outcome of this study was comparing the pregnancy rates between two study groups. Other differences between two groups such as serum estradiol concentration, fertilization rate, etc. were considered as secondary outcomes. A total of 130 patients completed this trial. No significant difference was detected between pregnancy rates of the two groups (P=0.52) as well as the fertilization, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates (P=0.11, P=0.75 and P=0.06 respectively). The only significant difference between two groups was a higher concentration of estradiol in the hCG-treated patients (P<0.05). HCG-treated patients experienced a shorter treatment duration and a lower r-FSH required dose than the non-hCG group, but none of these differences were statistically significant (P=0.19 and P=0.10, respectively). The findings of the current study did not support advantages of adding low-dose hCG to GnRH antagonist plus r-FSH protocol in an unselected population of patients. Well-designed trials with a larger sample size for specific patients' subgroups are warranted.
Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammation is often difficult in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), procalcitonin (PCT), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) to identify elderly patients with sepsis. In this single center prospective observational study, we included all consecutive elderly patients admitted with suspected sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in an emergency department. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6, ESR and white blood cells (WBC) count were taken at first day of admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each inflammatory markers being studied. A total of 150 elderly patients aged 65 and older, 50 with sepsis and 50 with SIRS, and fifty individuals in a normal health status were included. CRP exhibited the greatest sensitivity (98%) and negative predictive value (98.6%) and performed best in differentiating patients with sepsis from those with SIRS. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-6 performed best in distinguishing between SIRS and the control group (AUC 0.75, 95% CI). On the other hand, both CRP and ESR appeared to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating sepsis from SIRS among elderly patients.
Hoffa fracture is a rare injury consisting of unicondylar tangential posterior fracture of the distal femur and only very few cases have been reported in the literature. These fractures are due to high energy trauma and conservative treatment generally yields poor results, but rigid internal fixation allows early functional rehabilitation and decreases the incidence of complications. The purpose of the study was to prospectively analyse the clinico-radiological and functional outcome following open surgical treatment. From July 2005 to July 2010, 22 patients (14 males and 8 females) were recruited from Emergency and outpatient department having closed and open Hoffa fracture of the femoral condyle. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. Post-operatively, all the patients were followed for 12 months. Fractures were united in a mean time of 10 weeks (range from 6 - 16 weeks) depending on the type of fracture pattern. Fractures were reduced anatomically in all except in one patient. During follow-up, there were no losses of reduction or fixation. Full weight bearing were started in the mean time of 8.8 weeks. Mean duration of hospital stay were 9.8 days. Complications were stiffness and pain in one patient, collateral laxity in one patient and progression of arthritis in one patient. The results were excellent in 90.90% and good in 9.09% patients. Finally, we conclude that the early anatomical reduction and rigid fixation with screws provide best results and minimal complications.
Tuberculosis is still one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Besides clinical impact, the disease affects the quality of life (QOL) too. With the rise of 21st century, multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR TB) has risen as a significant public health problem due to emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) drugs. This study was planned to analyze the impact of MDRTB on QOL. It was a six month analysis, with a sample size of 60 cases each of MDRTB and PTB. It was based on a pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire using WHOQOL BREF scale. Out of each group, 38 (63.33%) and 36 (60.0%) were in the 21-40 years of age groups, more than 60% married and were residing in the urban/urban slums. It was found that QoL of MDRTB patients was worse than PTB counterparts. The psychological and environmental domains (MDRTB vs. PTB 17.46 vs. 15.23 and 22.00 vs 18.91) were more affected as compared to physical and social domains (19.03 vs 20.05 and 7.88 vs 9.61) in MDRTB and PTB. Financially, MDRTB patients were worst suffers as compared to PTB as former were not being covered under any program, while both groups are affected socially due to social stigma attached with the disease. Thus, there is a need to design an applicable, reliable measure to better address the quality issues methodologically. This would further enable the health care professionals and management to devise relevant interventions to improve the quality of the patients, as well as the programme.
Patient's preoccupations with perceived defect in appearance or excessive concern about minimal flaws are among diagnostic criteria of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Sufferers usually seek cosmetic procedures such as orthodontic treatment. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of BDD among a sample of Iranian orthodontic patients. A total of 270 orthodontic patients were evaluated with BDD-YBOCS questionnaire for the diagnosis of BDD. Fifteen patients (5.5%) were screened positive for BDD. BDD was more frequent among females, singles and in younger patients. Most of the BDD patients experienced multiple previous orthodontic evaluations. The relative high prevalence of BDD among orthodontic patients in Iran offers that orthodontists should take psychologically based problems such as BDD into account while evaluating patient's orthodontic problems.
To evaluate physical activity of pregnant women before and after ACOG guideline study. Four hundred and eighty-five pregnant women enrolled in this before-after study. They were asked to study ACOG guideline. A structured questionnaire filled by women at first visit and the last visit in the prenatal clinic.Type, frequency, duration and anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy period. Before education, 411 did exercises before pregnancy onset, among them, 346 were walking out and 65 did light exercises such as aerobics. After studying the protocol, 434 (89.4%) did walking during pregnancy period in comparison to 71% who did walking before pregnancy (P<0.001). Forty two (56.7%) out of 74 who had not done sport before, went for walking after the protocol reading, and nine continued not doing exercise. Among 74 participants who had not done exercise before the protocol reading, 16 (21%) were doing exercise three times a week and 11 (14%) changed their habit to daily exercise practice (P<0.001). Forty percent (195 women) were anxious about doing exercise during pregnancy before guideline study, while 116 reported that after the protocol reading, they had no anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy (P<0.001). Guidelines providing information about physical activity during pregnancy will help pregnant women to do exercise during pregnancy with convenience and less anxiety.
This cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis patients by plain radiographs and its relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, disease activity measures and medications. 100 rheumatoid arthritis patients (18 male and 82 female) were selected randomly, according to the American college of Rheumatology Criteria, who were under follow up in the rheumatology clinic. A complete history was taken, and physical examination has been done with focus on the cervical spine to determine their demographic data, disease duration, age of disease onset, drug history, swollen and tender joint counts, and ESR, Hb, CRP, RF levels. The disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was measured using the disease activity score 28. Radiographs of the cervical spine included lateral views taken in flexion, extension, neutral position of the neck and anterioposterior and odontoid projection view. Asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation was found in 17 of the 100 patients (17%). The prevalence of, anterior atlantoaxial subluxation, atlantoaxial impaction and subaxial subluxation was 10(10%), 5(5%) and 6(6%), respectively. Posterior subluxation was not detected. The only characteristic that showed meaningful relationship with cervical spine subluxation was CRP (P=0.036). Our results showed that patients with RA, who have cervical spine subluxation cannot be distinguished on the basis of symptoms. Cervical spine involvement is common and may be asymptomatic, indicating routine cervical spine imaging is needed in patients with RA.
Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96%) participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale) were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2%) of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (P<0.001). Students whose father and/or mother had a doctorate degree were most likely to have Internet addiction (P<0.001 for both). Job engagement of mothers was significantly associated with students' internet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (P<0.001); having no exercise was associated with the highest rate of Internet addiction (P<0.001). Stepwise logistic regression models showed gender (male), older age, mother's occupation, family's financial status (either very high or very low), low quality of family relationship, and students' lower levels of religious devotion were significantly associated with having Internet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.
Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988) cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.
We reports a six-year-old child with autistic disorder and methadone intoxication. Developmental disorders may mislead the caretakers and doctors to interpret the clinical manifestation and behavioral changes of these patients. Methadone indigestion can be fatal in children even in a tiny amount and cardiac monitoring should be performed at least for the first 24 hours. The pervasive prescription of methadone for detoxification programs and its extensive availability at homes of the addicted parents should point parents, doctors and media to pay more attention to provide safe-home environment for children.
Brown tumors may occur secondary to hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic renal failure (CKD). They are increasingly rare because hyperparathyroidism in now diagnosed and treated at an early stage. We report 67-year-old man who had been on hemodialysis for CRF for over 3 years, who presented with back pain over the thoracolumbar junction from 2 years ago and because of pain he could not stand or walk in the last 3 months before surgery. Ambulation was regained after surgical decompression and stabilization. In conclusion, when brown tumor arises in the spine, surgery may be needed to preserve neurologic function.
Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease is a prion disease which has a wide range of clinical presentations. Its diagnosis is not simple and clinical manifestation along with EEG, MR imaging findings and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis should be considered for a definite diagnosis. A-50-year-old woman referred with cognitive impairment, myoclonic jerks, mutism and difficulty in swallowing to our clinic. EEG (Electroencephalography) results showed bilaterally periodic sharp and slow-wave discharges. Protein 14-3-3 in CSF was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings revealed hyperintensity of the caudate and putamen in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2 Weighted (T2W) sequences and Fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. Patients who have progressive dementia should be evaluated by means of MR imaging and CSF analysis for CJD specific proteins should be considered.
The major complication of Kawasaki disease is coronary artery dilatation and aneurysm. It occurs in approximately 15-25% of untreated children with Kawasaki Disease. Early diagnosis and treatment with Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and aspirin (ASA) can reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormality to 2%-5%. We report one case of Atypical Kawasaki Disease with Multiple giant coronary artery aneurysms despite early adequate treatment with IVIG and ASA.
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