A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 51, No 6 (2013)
Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother-child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants. The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant's development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.
Gene polymorphism of cytokines influencing their function has been known as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the tooth and implant supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL-17R gene polymorphism (rs879576) with chronic periodontitis and periimplantitis in an Iranian population. 73 patients with chronic periodontitis, 37 patients with periimplantitis and 83 periodontally healthy patients were enrolled in this study. 5cc blood was obtained from each subject's arm vein and transferred to tubes containing EDTA. Genomic DNA was extracted using Miller's Salting Out technique. The DNA was transferred into 96 division plates, transported to Kbioscience Institute in United Kingdom and analyzed using the Kbioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) technique. Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to analyze differences in the expression of genotypes and frequency of alleles in disease and control groups (P-Value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant). There were no significant differences between periodontitis, periimplantitis with AA, GG, GA genotype of IL-17R gene (P=0.8239). Also comparison of frequency of alleles in SNP rs879576 of IL-17R gene between the chronic periodontitis group and periimplantitis group did not revealed statistically significant differences (P=0.8239). The enigma of IL-17 and its polymorphism-role in periodontitis and periimplantitis is yet to be investigated more carefully throughout further research but this article demonstrates that polymorphism of IL-17R plays no significant role in incidence of chronic periodontitis and Periimplantitis.
Although several treatments have been suggested for nasal polyposis, from medical to surgical, there is no standard guideline for the management of this disease. During recent years increasing attention has been directed toward the effects of macrolide antibiotics on chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis. In this study, the efficacy of clarithromycin on severe nasal polyposis were examined. In a Prospective, before - after study, forty patients with severe nasal polyposis received clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day for 8 weeks. At the beginning and end of treatment, the severity of patients' symptoms (using subjective analogue scale), computed tomography (CT) scan and endoscopic findings were recorded. After treatment, the severity of nasal obstruction, smelling problems, Post Nasal Discharge and rhinorrhea decreased significantly (P<0.05). Furthermore, the degree of sinus opacification in CT scan and endoscopic findings showed significant improvement. Most patients completed their treatment course without significant side effects. Although a course of clarithromycin improved nasal symptoms, polyp size and CT findings, further studies with more patients are required to recommend this drug as a general treatment in nasal polyposis.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) are inflammatory and anti-inflammatory enzymes, respectively that have been involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study we sought to evaluate the relations of MPO and PON1 with high density lipoprotein (HDL) mean size in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Collectively, 50 control subjects and 50 patients with ACS were participated in this study. MPO level and PON1 activity was determined using immunoassay and colorimetric methods, respectively. HDL mean size was determined by a dynamic light scattering methodology. Other clinical risk factors were also determined by standard methods. The MPO/PON1 ratio amount was significantly higher in patients with ACS (1.49±1.10) than in control subjects (0.21±0.14) (P<0.01). There was a significant correlation between MPO/PON1 ratio and HDL mean size in patients with ACS. Amount of the enzymes and their relations to HDL particle size in patients with ACS may play a part in the pathogenesis of ACS. Also, MPO/PON1 ratio may be a robust predictor of ACS.
Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory, usually demyelinating, polyneuropathy; clinically characterized by acute onset of symmetric progressive muscle weakness with loss of myotatic reflexes. Thirty five patients with GBS, defined clinically according to the criteria of Asbury and Cornblath, were recruited from three hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.As a control group 35 age and sex matched patients with other neurological diseases admitted to the same hospital at the same time, were included in our study. Serum samples were collected before treatment from each patient (within 4 weeks after the disease onset) and controls, and stored frozen at -80ºC until serologic assays were done. Serologic testing of pretreatment serum was performed in all patients. Positive titer of virus specific IgM antibody against cytomegalovirus (CMV) was found in 6 cases and 2 controls. 34 patients and 31 controls had high titer of anti Haemophilus influenzae IgG and one patient had serologic evidence of a recent Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mean titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae in cases and controls was 5.21 and 2.97 respectively. Although serologic evidence of all these infections were more frequent in cases than in controls, only Haemophilus influenzae infection appeared to be significantly related to GBS (P=0.002). Eleven cases and 3 controls had high titers of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae type B (titer >8). There is significant association between high titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae and GBS (P=0.017). Our results provide further evidence that Haemophilus influenzae and probably CMV, can be associated with GBS.
Dopamine agonists, particularly nonergot dopamine agonists such as pramipexole, have become the mainstay of therapy for patients with symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS). This study was designed to evaluate the factors affecting the efficacy of pramipexole in patients with RLS. Fifty-nine eligible RLS patients referred to neurology clinic of Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital (Tehran, Iran) were recruited in this study. All of the patients received an oral dose of 0.18 mg pramipexole. The severity of RLS symptoms were evaluated including sleep disorder, symptomatic days per week and symptomatic hours per day, both at the beginning and at the end of follow-up time. Different baseline and follow-up variables were also recorded and their relationships with the outcomes were assessed. The mean severity values of different symptoms significantly decreased after treatment with pramipexole (P<0.001). Female gender (P<0.05) and duration of treatment (P<0.05) were significant factors to achieve >50% reduction in symptomatic days per week and symptomatic hours per day. Moreover, the cutoff point of 3.5 mo for duration of treatment could potentially differentiate >50% reduction in severity of sleep disorder from the ones with <50% reduction with sensitivity and specificity of 56.8% and 78.6%, respectively. Our findings show that female gender and duration of treatment were the factors affecting the effectiveness of pramipexole in RLS patients. If tolerated by the patients, a longer duration of treatment with pramipexole is more effective in RLS.
Bipolar I disorder (BID) and its treatments have shown to be associated with deep impacts on patients' subjective feelings and quality of life (QOL). There are also some comments about impact of these feelings on course and outcome of patients with BID. This study was aimed to evaluate quality of life in patients with BID and to assess its relationship with course of disorder. Fifty patients with BID were recruited based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) from May 2008 and followed for 12 months. Quality of life and mood disorder recurrence were assessed through World Health Organization Quality of Life and SCID-I tools respectively at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Repeated measures analysis and logistic regression were used to analyze the independent effect of QOL and demographic factors on BID recurrence. Fifty patients (66% male; 48% never married; 48% in primary school level) with mean ± SE age and age of BID onset 33.8±1.5 and 26.6±1.1 years were studied. They had 3.4±0.6 episodes already. Twenty eight percent suffered from recurrences during the follow-up. The QOL scores at baseline, after 6 and 12 months were 70±1.8, 69.6±1.1 and 73±1.3 respectively. There were no significant change in QOL and its sub-domains during the follow-up (P=0.37). QOL showed no independent relationship with BID recurrences (P>0.1). No change in the QOL during the follow-up could denote lack of effectiveness of routine interventions on this factor. Also, short-term follow-up might be concerned as the possible reason. Of prime importance is to consider quality of life independently in treating patients with bipolar disorder.
The present study was designed to evaluate the quality of CPR procedures performed in Tehran's Rasool-e-Akram Hospital-- the first Emergency Medicine academic center in Iran-using a videotaped real-life (actual) CPR technique, with the aim of pointing out the defects and shortcomings in this regard. The performance of the CPR team in the emergency resuscitation room of Rasool-e-Akram Hospital was evaluated through videotaping. In an expert panel in the educational council of the emergency medicine group scored each item, which could be evaluated through videotaping, based on the existing guidelines. Fifty CPRs were videotaped between May to July 2008. From among the 33 CPRs which were recorded from the very first moment, 25 of them were started which the correct procedure, chest compression and ventilation, whereas procedures such as checking for pulse, getting an IV-line or intubation were performed as the first action in the remaining cases. While many believe CPR is performed properly in our center, the present study revealed that the performance is still distant from the desired ideal.
Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40%) patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26%) corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14%) corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%)), followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%)), and blunt trauma (3, (11%)). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%)), followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%)). Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.
Hepatitis is the infections of a common cause disease among poly transfused patients. Hepatitis C is slowed progression and inducing HCC. This study assessed HCC incidences, the role of iron and possible antitumor activity of chelators in 170 thalassemia patients using deferoxamine (DFO) therapy. They are diagnosed with Hepatitis C due to positive PCR-RNA. They are Treated with IFN. The follow up program including tests every 3 Months and PCR-RNA, AFP and liver US every 6 months. Whenever there was suspicion of liver malignancy, Biopsy was performed. From the total of 170 patients, 59.4% were male, and 40.6% were female. Mean age of thalassemia diagnosis was 2.69±5.403 (1-41) years and mean Age of hepatitis diagnosis was 17.37±7.263 (3-51) years. 92.4 % of Patient's MT, 0.6 % SS, 2.9% TI. the viral genome was 1a3a. 73.5% of patients had first course of therapy. The frequency of AFP greater than 10 was 5.9%. And the incidence of HCC was 0.6 %(1/170) with a 95% confidence interval. The main risk factor for HCC was HCV infection in TM patients, but it was iron activity in TI patients. Iron chelation with DFO appeared to play a Protective role.
Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is a rare autoimmune bullous dermatosis of pregnancy usually presents in the second or third trimester. It is characterized by pruritic, urticarial plaques with the development of tense vesicles and bullae within the lesions. Pathogenesis of PG is not fully established, however, most patients develop circulating autoantibodies targeting the bullous pemphigoid (BP) 180 antigen. The aim of this work is to draw a profile of the epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment and evolution of the disease by studying hospital series. We retrospectively investigated the 13 patients who were diagnosed with PG based on hospital data at the Referral Center of Southwest Iran located in Ahvaz city between March 2002 and March 2011. The age of onset was 21 to 40 years (mean age: 27.5 years). The onset of the disease occurred in the second trimester of pregnancy in 6 patients and in the third trimester of pregnancy in 4 patients. One patient had a flare up of disease during the first trimester and two out of cases in puerperium period. In all cases, pruritus was the first symptom, followed by an erythematous vesiculobullous eruption. The diagnosis of PG was confirmed by skin biopsy. Ten out of the patients treated with oral corticosteroids (0.5-1 mg/kg/day), one of the patients underwent oral corticosteroids plus topical glucocorticoid and the last patient treated with topical glucocorticoid. PG remains a rare dermatosis of pregnancy. Our series had two particularities compared to other studies: high frequency in primigravida and the frequent involvement of the face. Additionally our study demonstrated that improvement could occur faster and provide acceptable management if the treatment of the patients would be implemented sooner.
Quantum organizations are referred where stakeholders know how to access the infinite potential of the quantum field. Viewing healthcare organizations from perspective of quantum theory suggest new approaches into management techniques for effective and efficient delivery of healthcare services. This research is aimed to determine the quantum skills, quantum leadership characteristics and functions of Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals' nursing administrators. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 25 nursing administrators of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The research tool for data collection was a self-constructed questionnaire that measured the quantum skills, quantum leadership characteristics and functions of TUMS hospitals' nursing administrators. The validity of questionnaire was confirmed by 5 management science experts and its reliability was performed by using test-retest method yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.90. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS software and t-test statistical methods. The results of this research showed that all respondents had desired quantum skills (75.71±5.98), quantum leadership characteristics (82.01±6.77), and quantum leadership functions (78.57±6.28) and total quantum leadership (78.76±4.50). Also, passing management training courses of the respondents was significantly correlated with their quantum leadership. Iranian healthcare organizations require quantum leadership that provides an important resource to advance Iranian nursing leadership to the organizational excellence. We hope Iranian hospitals' nursing leaders who have quantum skills potentially, present a highly developed sense of self and the ability to improve nursing care outcomes in these hospitals.
The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.
Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.
Schwannoma is a solitary, slow growing, benign tumour of the peripheral nerve sheath, and it is most common locations are the head, neck, the flexor surfaces of the extremities, retroperitoneal and posterior mediastinium. External female genital organs are the least common location site of the schwannoma. Only a few cases of vulvar schwannoma have been reported.We report 65 year- old woman presented with a left vulvar swelling, which had been present for several years. The tumor size is 15x12 cm and slowly increased but it prevent patient activities such as walking and sitting. The tumor was resected for treatment and the histological examination confirmed to be a vulvar schwannoma. In our best knowledge, vulvar schwannoma in this case is the largest size in the literature.
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