Vol 53, No 1 (2015)

Published: 2015-01-15


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    In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we hypothesized damage to the nuclei of this circuit can cause reproductive dysfunctions. Therefore in this project we assessed diabetic effect on these nuclei. For this purpose neuron tracing technique and TUNEL assay were used. We injected HRP in the MPOA and counted labeled cells in the Me and BNST to evaluate the reduction of neurons in diabetic animals. Also, coronal sections were analyzed with the TMB histochemistry method. Animals in this study were adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 8g) divided to control and 10-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. After data analysis by SPSS 16 software, a significant reduction of HRP-labeled neurons was shown in both Me and BNST nuclei in the diabetic group. Moreover, apoptotic cells were significantly observed in diabetic animals in contrast to control the group. In conclusion, these alterations of the circuit as a result of diabetes might be one of the reasons for reproductive dysfunctions.

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    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, degeneration of the cholinergic neurons and neural cell death. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of a triazine derivative, C16H12Cl2N3S, on learning in an Alzheimer's rat model. Animals were divided into seven groups; each group contained seven animals.animals received no surgery and treatment; saline group: animals received normal saline after recovery; sham group: animals received 10% DMSO after recovery; STZ group (Alzheimer's model): animals received streptozotocin (STZ) in four and six days after recovery; T5, T10 and T15 groups: animals were treated with triazine derivative, C16H12Cl2N3S, at doses of 5, 10 and 15 µM, respectively. All drugs were injected intracerebroventricular. The spatial learning and histological assessment were performed in all groups. Animals in STZ group had more deficits in spatial learning than the control group in Morris water maze. C16H12Cl2N3S improved spatial learning significantly compared to STZ group. The CA1 pyramidal layer thicknesses in STZ group were reduced significantly compared to control group. C16H12Cl2N3S increased the CA1 pyramidal layer thickness in T15 group compared to STZ group. Current findings suggest C16H12Cl2N3S may have a protective effect on learning deficit and hippocampal structure in AD.

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    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) of sporadic origin. The expression of DHCR24 (Seladin-1), marker for neuronal oxidative stress and degeneration, has been reported to be altered in the brains of AD patients. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on the hippocampal oxidative parameters and the expression of DHCR24 (Seladin-1) in an animal model of sporadic AD. Male rats were pre-treated with TMZ (25 mg/kg) after which injected with intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)/Saline. Following 2, 7 and 14 days, animals of different groups were sacrificed with their brain excised to detect the hippocampal lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity, DHCR24 (Seladin-1) expression and possible histopathological changes. ICV-STZ administration induced significant oxidative changes in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, TMZ pre-treatment showed to ameliorate the oxidative stress, which was demonstrated by a significant rise in the hippocampal SOD and catalase activity, as well as a significant decrease in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level. TMZ administration also increased the expression of DHCR24 (Seladin-1) gene in the hippocampus. In conclusion, our findings indicated a neuroprotective effect of TMZ possibly related to its antioxidant activity resulting in the up-regulation of DHCR24 (Seladin-1). Such TMZ effects may be beneficial in minimizing oxidative stress in sporadic Alzheimer's disease and possible prevention of disease progression.

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    The adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The inflammatory enzyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO) also has an important role in the pathogenesis of CAD. Association of the adipokines with MPO remains to be resolved in patients with CAD. In this case-control study, 100 patients with CAD and 100 control subjects were appropriately recruited. Angiographic evaluation assigned the presence of CAD. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and MPO concentrations were measured using immunoassay methods. Other conventional cardiovascular risk factors were also recorded. Leptin and MPO concentrations were significantly increased in CAD patients compared to control subjects (25.38 ± 5.91 ng/ml vs. 3.68 ± 1.95 ng/mL and 52.85 ± 12.90 ng/mL vs.  23.00 ± 3.60 ng/mL, P=0.001, respectively). In contrast, adiponectin was significantly decreased in CAD patients compared to control subjects (5.62 ± 1.15 µg/mL vs. 9.25 ± 1.8, P = 0.001). There was a strong positive association between leptin and MPO concentrations only in CAD patients (P = 0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse association was found between adiponectin and MPO concentrations in CAD patients (P = 0.01). The associations also were significant after adjustment for other conventional risk factors (P = 0.001). Considering the presence of significant association between leptin and MPO, as well as adiponectin and MPO in patients with CAD, it may be inferred that the contribution of the adipokines in the pathogenesis of CAD may be, in part, through affecting the MPO concentration.

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    Androgenic alopecia as a physiologic process and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as a pathologic process in the older population are androgen-dependent processes influenced by 5-alpha reductase enzyme which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This cross sectional study was done to evaluate the relationship between androgenic alopecia and BPH. 150 men older than 50 years old, who presented to the free prostate screening clinic, were included. They were asked about urinary symptoms. PSA level, prostate volume with sonography and alopecia grading using Hamilton-Norwood classification (grade I to VII) were evaluated. Analysis was done by SPSS statistical method. 59.6% of men had mild alopecia (grade I, II, III), 34.1% had moderate alopecia (grade IV, V) and 6.3% had severe alopecia (grade VI, VII).The mean PSA level was 1.37 ± 1.48 ng/ml. The minimum PSA level was 0.1 ng/ml, and the maximum level was 6.8 ng/ml. The mean prostate volume was 37.85 ± 21.85cc. The minimum prostate size was 10 ml, and the maximum volume was 173 ml. The mean international prostate symptom score (IPSS) was 7.6 ± 6.11 with the minimum score 0 and the maximum score 27. However, no relationship between these parameters and androgenic alopecia was detected. This study showed that there is no relationship between androgenic alopecia, PSA level, IPSS, and prostate volume. Occurrence of alopecia in younger age and a positive family history correlated with a higher grade of alopecia.

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    Migraine is a neurologic disease, which often is associated with a unilateral headache. Vestibular abnormalities are common in migraine. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) assess otolith function in particular functional integrity of the saccule and the inferior vestibular nerve. We used VEMP to evaluate if the migraine headache can affect VEMP asymmetry parameters. A total of 25 patients with migraine (22 females and 3 males) who were diagnosed according to the criteria of IHS-1988 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 26 healthy participants (18 female and 8 male), without neurotological symptoms and history of migraine. The short tone burst (95 dB nHL, 500 Hz) was presented to ears. VEMP was recorded with surface electromyography over the contracted ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. Although current results showed that the amplitude ratio is greater in migraine patients than normal group, there was no statistical difference between two groups in mean asymmetry parameters of VEMP. Asymmetry measurements in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials probably are not indicators of unilateral deficient in saccular pathways of migraine patients.

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    Mother's and infant exposure to cigarette smoke is one of the most important public health problems. There is no study in Iran evaluating the impact of cigarette smoke on infant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cigarette. This prospective cohort study was conducted on 51 cigarette smoke-exposed infants (exposed group) and 51 non-exposed infants (non-exposed group). They were evaluated for weight, height and head circumference three times; five to seven days, two months and four months after birth. Urine samples were also collected in each turn. Exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed through questionnaires and urinary cotinine levels. The analysis was performed using an independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square and Fisher's exact and Kappa tests. Mean urinary cotinine level in the exposed group was 38.57±2.85 ng/mg creatinine at baseline, 86.95±1.16 at two months and 63.32±2.08 at four months of age. These indicated a gradual reduction of exposure from two to four months. The weight and height of the exposed group were significantly lower than the non-exposed group (P< 0.001) at two and four months after birth. The results of the present study showed that the exposure to secondhand smoke during infancy may lead to weight and height growth reduction in the first four months of life.

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    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) is one of the most problematic parasitic infections worldwide. Data regarding the effect of HIV-induced immunodeficiency on the status of E. histolytica infection are sparse in Iran. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of anti-E. histolytica IgG among Iranian HIV patients. Further, it determined whether the advancement of immunodeficiency accompanies an increased risk of amoebiasis. A total of 91 HIV-infected patients and 91 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Controls were matched to cases with respect to age, gender, and where possible socioeconomic status. Patients with a history of treatment for intestinal parasitism within last two weeks were not included in the study. Blood samples were obtained from all participants. Serum IgG against E. histolytica measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean serum anti-E. histolytica IgG was significantly higher in HIV patients than controls (9.34 ± 4.18 vs. 2.07 ± 0.60, P<0.001). HIV-infected patients showed a significantly higher positive serology for E. histolytica IgG comparing healthy controls (30.8% vs. 0% P<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the serology of E. histolytica among AIDS stage and non-AIDS HIV patients. This study demonstrated that HIV is significantly associated with higher prevalence of E. histolytica infection. Early evaluation and treatment of E. histolytica in this population is recommended to prevent and control this infection.

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    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a potential complication of cardiac surgery, given that patients undergoing CABG frequently have hypoxemia and pulmonary dysfunction during initial hours after surgery. Thus, ARDS criteria in these patients are more likely to be positive while these criteria may not match the patient`s clinical picture. We aimed to investigate frequency of rapid onset hypoxemia in Pressure of Arterial Oxygen to Fractional Inspired Oxygen Concentration (PaO2/FiO2) less than 200 and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates as two diagnostic criteria forwards and compared these criteria with the clinical picture of the patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) in this study. The study was prospective case series which carried out in about six months. All patients admitted to intensive care unit of Tehran Heart Center, who had undergone CABG on cardiopulmonary pump (CPB) recruited in the study. After considering inclusion criteria, age, sex, duration of intubation, arterial blood gas and chest radiography, on 24 hours and 48 hours after admission to the ICU were recorded. Then, patients with rapid onset of hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2≤200mmHg) and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and without sign or symptoms of obvious heart failure (probable positive ARDS cases) criteria were recorded and comparison between these probable positive cases with clinician`s clinical diagnosis (blinded to the study) was performed. In this study, a total of 300 patients after on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were included. Postoperatively, 2 (0.66 %) in the 24 hours and 4 (1.33%) patients in 48 hours after surgery were positive for the two ARDS criteria according to the checklists, but; nobody had saved persistently ARDS criteria persistently during 48 hours after surgery. At the same time, clinician did not report any case of ARDS among 300 patients. In this study patients with ARDS criteria had no significant differences in age (P.value=0.937) and sex (P.value=0.533). Duration of intubation in patients with ARDS (14.26 ± 4.25 hours) in the first 48 hours was higher but not statistically different from the group without ARDS (11.60 ± 5.45 hours) (P.value=0.236). ARDS diagnosis based on rapid onset of hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2≤200 mmHg) and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and without signs or symptoms of obvious heart failure criteria in patients undergoing CABG could lead to overdiagnosis or misdiagnosis in less than 24 hours follow up. We recommend following patients for more than 24 hours and revise the current ARDS criteria for CABG patients.

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    The most common type of arrhythmia following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is atrial fibrillation (AF) with an incidence rate of 20-30%. Pericardial effusion is one of the etiologic factors of atrial fibrillation occurring after CABG. Posterior pericardiotomy (PP) causes the drainage of blood and fluids from the pericardial space into the pleural space leading to a decreased pericardial effusion. Most of the studies dealing with the occurrence of AF in the surgical operation of CABG have focused on patients undergoing on-pump CABG. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of posterior pericardiotomy on pericardial effusion and atrial fibrillation following the off-pump CABG. This study was a clinical trial conducted on 207 patients. The patients were randomly assigned to groups A, and B. Posterior pericardiotomy was performed on the patients in Group A. This was not done on patients in Group B. Following general anesthesia and median sternotomy, the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and saphenous vein were harvested simultaneously. Following the injection of heparin, distal and proximal anastomosis was performed and at the end of surgery, a longitudinal incision with a length of 4 cm was performed parallel and posterior to the left phrenic nerve from the left vein to diaphragm for patients in the pericardiotomy group. 105 patients in the pericardiotomy group and 102 patients in the control group were examined regarding demographic variables, AF incidence, and pericardial effusion. There was no statistically significant correlation between two groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the rate of AF incidence (P=0.719) and the rate of pericardial effusion (P=1). Posterior pericardiotomy has no effect on postoperative AF incidence and pericardial effusion in patients undergoing the off-pump CABG.

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    Of the ways to fight breast cancer and reduce deaths hazard due to early detection is one of early detection programs in women's breast self- examination. Examining breast by oneself increase individuals knowledge of her breast health that helps in detecting breast cancer early. Different cultural, social, family and individual factors play roles in women's behavior about breast self- examination applying PEN-3 model in this study is to analyze factors influencing on breast self-examination. The research is a descriptive- analytical, cross-sectional type. Research community consists of women at fertility age of 20-49 in sari. Sample volume is 415 individuals and sampling method is cluster method. In this study, a 50-item questionnaire based on PEN-3 was used. Questions were answered by Likert scoring method. Questionnaire was gathered by personal presence of questioners. Data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and logistic regression methods. Based on the study findings, the most significant positive behaviors related to perceptual factors included effectiveness of disease background in family and relatives (73%), believing in breast self- examination for pursuing health (93%) and the most important negative behaviors were shyness and modesty (83.9%) and increased worry (78.9%). The most remarkable positive behaviors regarding enabling factors covered the skill to do breast examination oneself (35.2%), the availability of health and therapeutic centers (80.7%) and the most significant negative behavior was being busy and lack of time (85.3%). The most important positive behavior about nurturing factors included family consent (68.9%) and the most significant negative one was the inappropriate treatment of health and therapeutic personnel (61.8%). In this study, there is a meaningful difference between employment ages, education with PEN-3 model constituents. Since behaviors due to enabling and nurturing perceptual factors have been important in doing or not doing breast self- examination; thus its worth to take measures to plan some educational and administrative intervention programs about women breast cancer early detection through sufficient knowledge of influential sociocultural factors.

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    This case report presents an eight-year-old girl having periauricular swelling and severe pain during mouth opening on the right-side temporomandibular joint (TMJ). CBCT showed extensive destruction of the base of the skull and the roof of the glenoid fossa on the right side. The findings based on CT and MRI images with and without contrast are discussed herein. This report highlights a skull base eosinophilic granuloma that mimics TMJ disorder and the importance of proper evaluation of CBCT images to make an early diagnosis.

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    Hydatid disease has a worldwide spreading. The most common site of the disease is the liver, lungs, kidney, bones, and brain. Splenic hydatid disease has been reported to constitute 2% to 6% of patients with abdominal hydatid disease. Because of the rarity of splenic hydatid disease, the probable concomitance of the liver and splenic hydatid cysts should be taken into consideration by clinicians, especially in nonendemic areas. In this report, we present two patients with concomitant splenic and liver hydatid cysts that underwent splenectomy and cystostomy-capitonage.