Acta Medica Iranica (p. ISSN 0044-6025; e. ISSN: 1735-9694) is the official journal of the School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

The journal is the oldest scientific medical journal in the country pulished in English, from 1956 onward. Although since 2004 it had been published bimonthly, the journal has been published monthly from first issue of 2011.

Acta Medica Iranica is an international journal with multidisciplinary scope which publishes original research papers, review articles, case reports, and letters to the editor from all over the world. The journal has a wide scope and allows scientists, clinicians, and academic members to publish their original works in this field.

The editorial board of the journal hopes that the journal would be welcomed by researchers and academics in universities and related centers in Asia and in the world at large.

Current Issue

Vol 59, No 4 (2021)
Published: 2021-04-30

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 48 | views: 57 | pages: 186-190

    Headaches are a very common ailment in the modern world. Unfortunately, a large number of people are not diagnosed properly, and headaches are underestimated. However, it is worth analyzing this problem to be able to treat the causes of which the headache is only a symptom. The aim of the work was to present various types of headaches and their characteristic features. To this end, a systematic review of the PubMed science base has been carried out. It is possible to distinguish mainly primary and secondary headaches. Particularly noteworthy are secondary headaches, among which, for example, headaches associated with sexual activity can be observed. It can be seen that there is a lack of scientific literature discussing this type of headache. Since there is a stigma surrounding it, this topic is avoided in research and difficult to explore due to low public awareness. In turn, the treatment of headaches does not have to be limited to pharmacological methods. The review presents effective methods of non-pharmacological treatment of headaches. Headaches are a social and economic problem. It is important to educate the patient and their families in the field of headache treatment to increase patients' awareness of the types of headaches.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 71 | views: 80 | pages: 197-202

    The gastrointestinal pathologies have increased over the last years. The clinical pictures of inflammatory and irritable bowel disease might overlap, leading to expensive and invasive tests. Our study aims to investigate fecal calprotectin as an effective tool for differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. Two hundred fifty-six patients with the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal disorder and subjected to colonoscopy were collected for the statistical analysis of fecal calprotectin. The differential diagnosis of intestinal inflammation or non-inflammation was performed according to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve that outlines the Area Under Curve (AUC), Sensitivity (Se), Specificity (Sp). Fecal calprotectin was significantly elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Especially, the mean values of fecal calprotectin were 522 mg/g (IQR=215-975) and 21 mg/g (IQR=14-34.5) in patients with and without inflammation, respectively (P<0.0001). AUC value of fecal calprotectin was 0.958 (Se=88.9%, Sp=91.1%, with a cut-off value of 50 mg/g) for differentiating between inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Fecal calprotectin seems to be a non-invasive and inexpensive biomarker useful for the purpose of a differential diagnosis between inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 31 | views: 31 | pages: 203-205

    In this study, we aimed to find the frequency of agger nasi cells (ANC) and their correlation with other anatomical anomalies in dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) candidates, compared with a control group. The study was conducted on 42 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction who underwent DCR surgery. Also, 80 C.T. of healthy sex- and age-matched subjects were selected as the control group. Paranasal sinuses computed tomography scanning was performed preoperatively, and abnormalities including ANC, concha bullosa, osteomeatal complex disease (OMC), nasal septum deviation, and polyposis were investigated and registered. Radiologic findings showed ANC presence in 83.3% of cases, and frequency of concha bullosa was 23.8%, and OMC disease, septal deviation, and nasal polyposis recorded as 11.9%, 85.7%, and 14.3%, respectively. In the control group, ANC was found in 52 subjects (65%), and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.036). There was no significant correlation between the presence of ANC and the coexistence of other mentioned anatomical changes as attributing factors for NLD obstruction. The frequency of ANC was much higher in patients with NLD obstruction compared with the control group, but its association with other anomalies was non-significant.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 46 | views: 59 | pages: 208-216

    Life satisfaction can both affect and be affected by occupational factors in military personnel. Perceived stress is considered an important predictor of life satisfaction. The objective of this study is to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of perceived stress on life satisfaction and the mediating role of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality among Iranian military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 301 military personnel were investigated by using standard self-report questionnaires, consisting of the Revised Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90-R), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in our study. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient, ordinary least square regression, and the bootstrap method. The direct effect of perceived stress on life satisfaction was significant. Perceived stress also affects life satisfaction indirectly through single mediation of sleep quality; serial multiple mediations of anxiety as the first and sleep quality as the second mediator; and the serial multiple mediations of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality, as the first to the third mediator, respectively. Lower levels of perceived stress, depression, and anxiety, along with better sleep quality, are correlated to higher levels of life satisfaction in military personnel. There are several points of prevention and intervention in order to increase the life satisfaction of military personnel, which can improve their quality of life and occupational efficiency.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 28 | views: 37 | pages: 217-222

    Postdate pregnancy is a pregnancy that pasts more than forty weeks. This can be dangerous for the mother, fetus, and newborn. By knowing the most appropriate ultrasound criteria in predicting the probability of postdate pregnancy, its complications can be reduced by taking timely measures. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between ultrasound criteria in determining the age of postdate fetuses. This cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical type) was done in Kermanshah Imam Reza Hospital on 33 pregnant women that, according to LMP and first-trimester ultrasound, pregnancy age was more than 40 weeks. Gestational age was calculated by various ultrasound criteria, including head circumference measurement (HC), Abdominal Circumference (AC), Biparietal Diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), and Transcerebellar Diameter (TCD). The findings were compared with calculated age by LMP. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 software. Correlation rate of pregnancy age based on LMP with FL (R=0.576, P<0.001), AC (R=0.208, P=0.245), BPD (R= -0.200, P=0.264), HC (R= -0.211, P=0.238) and TCD were (R=0.111, P=0.538). The pregnancy age correlation rate based on LMP with ultrasound criteria in general was (R=0.140, P=0.436). There was a direct relationship between gestational age based on LMP with FL, AC, TCD and inversely related to BPD and HC. Among the sonographic criteria, only the FL criterion was significantly correlated with LMP. In general, the correlation between gestational age based on LMP and ultrasound was not statistically significant.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 18 | views: 27 | pages: 223-227

    - Amblyopia (lazy eye) is one of the significant complications of strabismus surgery. It is the most important cause of unilateral visual impairment in both children and adults. The current investigation was achieved to determine the postoperative amblyopia rate and to identify factors predisposing to amblyopia following exotropia surgery among patients who had been referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Urmia, Iran. The present investigation is a retrospective study that was conducted over three years (2008-2010). The study consisted of sixty patients who underwent their first strabismus surgery for treatment of horizontal deviation. Patients were followed up for at least 24 months, and the rate of postoperative amblyopia was measured. The preoperative deviation, strabismus type (exotropia vs. esotropia), visual acuity, age at surgery, and the number of operated muscles were analyzed as determining factors of postoperative development of amblyopia. Amblyopia was observed in 50% of cases during the follow-up period. No statistically significant differences were observed between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes in terms of sex, age at surgery, strabismus type, and visual acuity. But amblyopic eyes showed higher deviation angles compared to non-amblyopic eyes (<0.001). The Cox hazard model analysis revealed a significant contribution of deviation angle to postoperative development of amblyopia. A larger deviation angle has been identified as a positive predictor of postoperative development of amblyopia in our investigated population. Due to such a high rate of postoperative amblyopia, it seems better to initiate and complete amblyopia therapy before strabismus surgery.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 28 | views: 44 | pages: 191-196

    The purpose of this study is to generalize the results of a complex clinical-laboratory, radiological and immunological study of patients with spinal tuberculosis. A comprehensive examination analysis was carried out in 192 patients with tuberculous spondylitis who were in the department of surgery for osteoarticular tuberculosis of the Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Center of Tuberculosis and Pulmonology in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Severe degrees of spinal disorders were found in 48.7% of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) allow establishing the stage and activity of a specific process in the spine, as well as complications. Spinal column instability was detected in 143 (74.5%) patients, paravertebral abscesses in 116 (60.4%) patients, and epidural abscesses in 75 (39.0%) patients. Changes in immunological parameters in patients with spinal tuberculosis were associated both with impaired regulation of immunogenetic and with the direct influence of the immune system at various stages of the process. The detection of certain patterns of immune system disorders in patients with tuberculous lesions of the spine allowed us to make a differentiated approach to their treatment in order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. It can be concluded that at present, tuberculosis of bones and joints, especially the spine, is detected in an advanced stage in 50-80% of cases and has a widespread and complicated character with profound anatomical and functional changes and the presence of severe spinal disorders in 48.7% patients in Uzbekistan. Regarding spondylitis, it is immensely important to make an accurate diagnosis based on the clinical presentations, laboratory, radiological and immunological findings and by periodic assessment of the response to treatment, which is essential in atypical cases.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 21 | views: 30 | pages: 228-231

    - Lipid keratopathy refers to corneal lipid infiltrations. We report a 54-year-old female without any systemic disorder presented with a slowly progressive yellow-white infiltrate in the inferotemporal part of the left cornea for six years. Due to a visual axis involvement leading to decreased visual acuity, the patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty on the left eye. The excised corneal button specimen was sent for pathological evaluation. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and confocal scanning microscopy showed an intra-stromal hyper-reflective material consistent with lipid crystalline keratopathy diagnosis. Histopathology revealed an excessive amount of fat droplets in corneal stroma presented as clear areas in hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining in keeping with Oil Red O staining. Idiopathic lipid crystalline keratopathy is a diagnosis of exclusion. For such a diagnosis, the serum lipid profile should be checked to rule out fat metabolic disorders and ocular diseases causing chronic inflammation leading to secondary corneal lipid depositions.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 24 | views: 33 | pages: 232-235

    Hydatid disease is mainly because of the Echinococcus granulosus at the larval stage. The liver and lung are its most consequences. The pancreatic hydatid cyst (PHC) incidence is very low (0.14%-2%). A 55-year-old female patient presented with epigastric pain for the last one year that the pain did not continue but during one months ago suffered continually. In physical examination, there was not any abdominal bulb, tenderness and rebound tenderness. A 54×59 mm cystic structure was observed by ultrasonography (USG) and Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) in the pancreatic body with stone in the gallbladder. Amylase, lipase, and LFT levels were normal. The Anti-hydatid antibody was positive. During laparoscopic exploration, a hydatid cyst was found. Partial cystectomy with external drainage and cholecystectomy was performed once irrigation with scolicidal agent and evacuation of cystic contents was conducted. Histopathological biopsy reported Hydatid cyst. A pancreatic, hepatic cyst is a rare event. Hematogenous is the most common spread way. Cysts in the pancreatic head could be found with obstructive jaundice. Usually, cysts in the body and tail are known to be asymptomatic. USG, CT, and Hydatid serology are useful with the clinical diagnosis as well as monitoring the recurrence. An exploration via surgery is an option that includes pericystectomy, partial cystectomy with/without external drainage or omentopexy, marsupialization, or cysto-enterostomy, which is done. What makes this case unique is the laparoscopic method that we used instead of open surgery, which is a treatment of choice. The recommendation is pre-operative and postoperative antihelminthic (Albendazole). PHC could be present as pseudocyst or cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. For patients with endemic regions and laparoscopic surgery, differential diagnosis of the cystic pancreatic lesion should be noticed. Common surgery approach could be considered for such patients.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 33 | views: 45 | pages: 236-238

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by a deletion in chromosome 22q11.2 and has more than 180 distinct phenotypes, however, no finding is pathognomonic or even mandatory. This syndrome can be diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Thus, we report herein a patient from Manaus, Brazil who has congenital heart disease and facial dimorphism with the presence of 22q11.2 deletion in the N25 region. Male patient, 1 year old, son of non-consanguineous parents and without family history of genetic disease. The patient was hospitalized in the cardiac intensive care unit of the Francisca Mendes University Hospital for surgery. The patient was diagnosed with interventricular communication, low atrial implantation, hypertelorism and macroglossia. The FISH result revealed the presence of proximal deletion in the N25 region (22q11.2) in only one of the pair in chromosome 22. This finding revealed a diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, in other words, a hemizygotic deletion with haploinsufficiency of the CLTCL1 gene in this region. However, it is valid to say that the CLTCL1 gene is related to the clinical picture of the patient reported in this study. Cytogenomic analysis was essential for the etiological diagnosis and revealed 22q11.2 deletion in the N25 region, which resulted in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The importance of diagnosing this syndrome lies in the best therapeutic conduct, thus allowing a better quality of life to the patient and adequate genetic counseling. Other cytogenomic studies are essential in order to elucidate the size of the deletion and low copy repeats involved in this deletion.  

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