A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 50, No 5 (2012)
Spinal cord injured (SCI) patients have sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED), impotence, priapism, ejaculatory dysfunction and infertility. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include four steps. Step 1 involves smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity. Step 2 is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I) such as Sildenafil (Viagra), intracavernous injections of Papaverine or prostaglandins, and vacuum constriction devices. Step 3 is a penile prosthesis, and Step 4 is sacral neuromodulation (SNM). Priapism can be resolved spontaneously if there is no ischemia found on blood gas measurement or by Phenylephrine. For anejaculatory dysfunction, massage, vibrator, electrical stimulation and direct surgical biopsy can be used to obtain sperm which can then be used for intra-uterine or in-vitro fertilization. Infertility treatment in male SCI patients involves a combination of the above treatments for erectile and anejaculatory dysfunctions. The basic approach to and management of sexual dysfunction in female SCI patients are similar as for men but do not require treatment for erectile or ejaculatory problems.
Despite the many studies about timing for surgery in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the optimum time is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the results of early and late surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the results of 70 consecutive surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in in Firuzgar hospital from 2005 to 2008. Surgery was performed in 50 cases (71.4%) in early period after SAH (first 4 days) and in 20 cases (28.6%) in at least 7 days after SAH. Statitical analysis was done by SPSS software, using Chi-square and t-test. Mean age of patients was 48.54±13.4 years. 41.4% of patients were male and 58.6% were female. Most (77.2%) of patients had clinical grade I or II. 92.9% of aneurysms were single. Hypertension was the most common associated disease (34.3%). The most common site of aneurysms was anterior communicating artery (41.4%), followed by middle cerebral artery (35.7%). The outcome of surgery was favorable in 70% and unfavorable in 30%. Mortality rate was 24.3%. Outcome was favorable in 66% of early surgeries and 80% of late surgeries. There was no statistically significant difference between early and late surgery in terms of complications and outcome. Mean hospital stay of patients in the early surgery group was significantly lower than late group (16.46±9.36 vs. 22.5±7.97 days; P=0.01). The results of early and late surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is similar and decision making for timing of surgery should be based on each patient individual clinical conditions, age, size and site of aneurysm.
It is assumed that about 10% of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop tuberculosis. The rate of tuberculosis in solid organ transplant recipients has been estimated to be 50-fold higher than in the general population. Candidates for solid organ transplantation are routinely screened for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). In this study we aimed to compare Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) with QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) for the detection of LTBI in candidate for kidney transplantation. Between October 2009 and November 2010, 64 candidates for kidney transplant who referred to the transplant clinic in Imam Khomeini Hospital, were enrolled in the study. Patients were screened for LTBI with both QFT and TST. Concordance between two test results and variables associated with test discordance were assessed. The mean age of patients was 38.5 years (range 16-65); female/male ratio was 26/38. Positive results were found in 21.9% and 21.9%, by TST and QFT, respectively. Four patients (6.3%) had indeterminate QFT. Overall agreement between QFT and TST was 75% (k=0.28 and P=0.028). BCG vaccination and past positive TST were not associated with positive QFT result (P=0.13 and P=0.09 respectively). Overall agreement between test results was fair. Comparison among test results showed that TST andQFT can be used interchangeably for latent TB screening in kidney transplant candidates. The decision to select QFT or TST will depend on the purpose of testing and resource availability.
Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common chronic infections in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Recent reports suggested that H. pylori might have high prevalence among patients with diabetes. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection in diabetes mellitus and to study the relationship between histological findings and H. pylori infection in diabetic patients. Eighty patients with dyspepsia that were referred to our gastrointestinal department between May 2007 and May 2008 were included in our study. We checked fasting blood sugar for all of the study samples. All of patients underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy specimens were obtained from the antrum and the corpus. The specimens for the presence of H. pylori were colored by Giemsa stains. A single pathologist evaluated the histology slides. We found that prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetics (P=0.001). Indeed, the prevalence of gastritis did differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.001). According to our results diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factor that must be considered in evaluation of H. pylori infection in diabetic patients with dyspepsia.
The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.
The aim of this study was investigating the characteristic and outcome of self-immolation cases admitted to the Burn Centre of Birjand, Iran over an eight year period. This study is a retrospective review of case notes for patients with self-Immolation and admitted to our referral burn centre in the last 8 years (January 2003-January 2011). A performa was designed to collect the data such as: demographic information, length of hospital stay, extent of the burn injuries as %TBSA (Total Body Surface Area) and final outcome. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Between 2003 and 2011, 188 self-immolation cases admitted. The mean age was 26.97 ±12.6 years. Female to male ratio was 1.7:1. Housewives represented the largest group (43.1%) and kerosene was the most frequent agent used (74.6%). There was significant different between mortality and TBSA and low educational level (P=0.0001). There was a significant fluctuation time trend in the incidence (per 100,000 population) of self-immolation from 2003 (4.64, CI 95%: 4.62-4.65) to 2008 (5.2, CI 95%: 5.19-5.21). Mortality rate was 64%. The survival rates at three weeks survival for patients who self-immolated was 24 percent (CI 95%: 17-31). The mean and median survival times were 6 days (CI 95%: 4.8-7.2) and 17.5 days (CI 95%: 13.3-21.6), respectively. Our study has shown a lower incidence of self-immolation (5.3%) in the South Khorasan region, when compared with other parts of Iran, as well as a relatively low mortality rate. We have also reported self-immolation in pregnant women which has rarely been reported in medical literature.
Bullous pemphigoid is an immunobullous disease with high mortality and morbidity. Different aspects and characteristics in the patients vary in different areas in the world. Our objective was to study clinical and demographic characteristics of bullous pemphigoid in Iranian patients. In a retrospective descriptive study, we reviewed 122 patients with bullous pemphigoid within 1987-2007. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment, relapses and outcome were evaluated. The mean age of 122 patients was 65 ± 18.11 years including 35.2% male and 64.8% female. The most common manifestations were cutaneous bullae (97.5%). 27% had oral lesions. 30.3% had eosinophillia. 90 patients(73.8%) received oral prednisolone, 29 patients (23.8%) topical steroid, 2 patients tetracycline and 1 patient dapsone. 89 patients were followed after admission. Out of them 44 patients experienced first relapse and 22 patients second relapse. 41 cases (46%) were completely controlled. 11 cases (12%) were not controlled. Clinical and general characteristics of bullous pemphigoid patients differ in various regions in the world.
Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are rare, slow-growing tumors that should be considered in evaluating every lateral neck mass. This single center study was performed to define demographic features, clinical characteristics and remedies of Iranian patients with CBT. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was done on 45 patients with 50 CBTs who have been referred to Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during a 10-year period, were investigated in this study. The demographic characteristics, clinical and pathologic features, imagings, preoperative treatments, surgical approach and complications were analyzed. The study group predominantly consisted of females (82%). Age of diagnosis was 18 to 75 years old. Five patients had bilateral CBT. Family history of CBT was positive in seven patients. Most of CBTs were ≤ 3cm in size. All of the patients presented with a neck mass, mostly without pain (84%). Other symptoms included vertigo 4%, dysphasia 4% and tinnitus 2%. There was no patient with cranial nerve involvement at presentation. The most common imaging helping the diagnosis was color Doppler sonography. Three patients had preoperative embolization. All patients underwent surgery and seven patients had post-operative cranial nerve injury. Nine cases underwent external carotid artery ligation and four ones had external carotid repair. Post operative mortality rate was one patient. This study provides epidemiological data on patients with CBT in Iran, which could be useful for health care workers in prompt diagnosis and appropriate work ups for patient's families in bilateral CBTs.
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most incriminated fungal pathogen causing meningitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, and is known to constitute a major cause of deaths in AIDS patients. This study aimed to determine the sero-prevalence and effect of CD4 count on seropositivity for Cryptococcus neoformans antigen (crag) in antiretroviral- naïve (ART-naïve) AIDS patients. This study included 150 (61 males and 89 females) ART-naïve AIDS patients attending the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) clinic of the University of Benin teaching hospital, Benin City, Nigeria within the period February 2011- July 2011. 40 (18 males and 22 females) HIV positive outpatients with CD4 counts >200 cells/µl who are ART-naive were recruited and used as controls. The prevalence of crag in the patients and control group was determined using the cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination system (CALAS) (Meridian Bioscience, Europe) and CD4 counts were measured using flow cytometry (Partec flow cytometer, Germany). Of 150 ART-naïve AIDS patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µL, 19 (12.7%) were positive for serum Cryptococcal antigen. ART-naïve AIDS patients with CD4 count ≤50 cells/µl had the highest prevalence of serum crag. Lower CD4 counts were significantly associated with positivity for serum crag (P<0.001). Age and Sex had no significant effect on the sero-positivity for serum crag. 1 (2.5%) of the control was sero-positive for crag. Serum crag was significantly associated with AIDS but not with HIV (P<0.001). This study uncovers a high prevalence of crag in ART-naïve AIDS patients in Benin City. There is an urgent need to introduce early and routine screening for crag in ART-naïve AIDS patients for prompt intervention.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a neonatal life threatening infection which is usually treated with ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside or a third-generation cephalosporin. Recently, growing number of Escherchia coli species resistant to ampicillin and aminoglycosides have raised concerns regarding the necessity to change the empirical therapy. This motivates us to determine neonatal UTI clinical response to the used empirical antibiotics. This study was designed as a Case Series. All neonates admitted to Bahrami Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2001- 2010 with a diagnosis of UTI surveyed by simple non-random sampling. Totally, 97 cases (including 83 (85.6%) term, 8 (8.2%) post-term and 6 (6.2%) preterm neonates) with a mean age of 15.85 ± 7.05 days at admission ,average weight of 3195.57 ± 553g at birth and 3276.29 ± 599.182 g at admission were studied. Ampicillin resistance in 93 cases (95.9%), gentamicin resistance in 51 cases (52.6%) and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole resistance in 44 cases (45.4%) were the leading resistances in this study. Escherichia coli was the dominant organism in 76.3% (74 patients) of study population which was resistant to ampicillin in 95.9% (71 cases). Despite the observed resistant to initial empirical regimen antibiotics (especially ampicillin), 81.4% of patients responded to empirical therapy. However, we believe till conductance of more detailed studies regarding the relationship between empirical therapy and antibiogram concordance, physicians take ampicillin-resistant E coli infection issue into accounts from the first steps of management of critically ill neonates.
Concomitant papillary thyroid cancer and parathyroid adenoma is rare. We report a 55 years old female with papillary cancer admitted for surgery. Preoperative laboratory findings revealed hypercalcemia and then primary hyperparathyroidism. Thyroidectomy, neck dissection and excision of parathyroid adenoma were performed. Histological examination revealed parathyroid adenoma. Serum calcium returned to normal range after surgery. We recommend preoperative check of calcium in patients with thyroid cancer.
Nasojejunal feeding tubes are being used at an increased frequency, but it is not without complications that could be life-threatening. We report two cases of pneumothorax following small-bore feeding tube insertion into the pleural cavity, resulting in pneumothorax. We further discuss the potential measures that can be taken to prevent and treat this serious complication.
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