A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 51, No 5 (2013)
Although the connection between head and stomach and hence the condition known as "gastric headache" was well known to the ancients, it has received little attention since the early 20th century. Herein, we review the teachings of the medieval Persian physicians about the gastric headache along with the related signs, symptoms, types and causes. The medieval Persian scholars adopted the main ideas of the gastric headache from predecessors in the ancient Greece and Rome, added substantial sub-categories and details to the earlier descriptions and therapeutic options. The medieval Persian physicians' contributions to the concept of gastric headache influenced beyond doubt the later accounts of this condition.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells that have a potential role in the initiating of immune responses. The cell vaccination is a new strategy in treatment of infectious diseases and cancers. In this study, we have generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells of lymphoma patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells then; these cells were used as vaccine in lymphoma patients. We generated dendritic cell vaccine from lymphoma patient's blood monocytes with human interleukin-4, granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor and then, antigen-primed Dcs were administrated subcutaneously close to the inguinal lymph nodes after maturation of dendritic cells. After 7 days, we analyzed immune response in lymphoma patients with determining of LDH, Beta 2 Microglobulin, CD4+T cell percent, CD8+ Tcell percent and Tumor size before and after vaccination. Furthermore, phenotypic and functional analysis of dendritic cells was performed using anti CD83-FITC monoclonal antibodies. Before vaccination, the mean ± SD of LDH was 530.62±140.65 but after vaccination it was 459±109.45 that significantly different between experimental groups (P=0.002). In addition, the CD8+ T cells percentage significantly different between two groups (P=0.002). We concluded that the use of dendritic cell probably is one of the suitable noninvasive treatments for lymphoma patients that they have not response to chemical drugs.
Multiple risk factors are introduced for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have suggested a possible correlation between vitamin D deficiency and an increase risk of MS. This study was therefore undertaken to compare vitamin D levels in new cases of MS and their relatives as healthy controls. Seventy five new diagnosed MS patients and 100 matched healthy controls among their relatives were enrolled in this study. Two groups were matched for gender, age, season in which serum level of vitamin D was checked and region and diet. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured, recorded and analyzed. Seventy five patients (57 female and 18 male) and 100 healthy subjects (75 female and 25 male) were enrolled in this study. The mean serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in case and control groups were 11.31 and 17.9 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.003). Compared to the healthy subject, serum levels of vitamin D were significantly lower in patients with MS. This difference was only significant in women. Observed difference of vitamin D levels of both groups were significant in summer. This study continues to support the role of vitamin D deficiency in MS.
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD) are multifactorial conditions that result from genetic predisposition in combination with environmental risk factors. Helicobacter pylori infection as an environmental risk factor has been proposed to imitate the antigenic components of the thyroid cell membrane and may play a leading role in the onset of the autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The participants in this case-control study included 43 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 40 healthy individuals without history of autoimmune disease as the control group. Anti HP IgG and anti-TPO antibodies were determined using ELISA method. Results were considered positive when the IgG anti-HP value was higher than 30 IU/ml and the anti-TPO autoantibody value was higher than 75 IU/ml. The mean TSH level was 18.3±16.8 IU/ml for patients and 2.8±1.2 IU/ml for the control group (P<0.001). 46.5% of the patient group and 10.8% of the control group were infected with HP. The association between HP and Hashimoto's thyroiditis was statistically significant (Odds Ratio=7.2, 95%, Confidence Interval: 2.0- 28.8, P<0.001). The findings show that, there is an association between HP and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. To establish a definite correlation between them, more detailed studies with a more specialized examination and precise consideration regarding species of HP, genetic polymorphism of the host and investigation of environmental factors are needed.
The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW) neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004) were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead) were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02), low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001), Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001), resuscitation at birth (P=0.001), respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001) need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001), neurological complications (P=0.001) and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001). Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.
A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002). The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE) about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.
In the present study, we examined the relationship between family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes with laboratorial abnormalities and syndromes in Iranian patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 332 NAFLD patients from our outpatient clinic were consecutively entered into analysis. Exclusion criteria were having diabetes mellitus and fasting blood glucose over 126, active hepatitis B virus infection, having HCV positive serology, and to be under corticosteroid therapy. Family history of CVD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were taken from patients and related to the study variables. Family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) was associated with low HDL levels (P=0.05). Patients with positive family history of diabetes mellitus were significantly more likely to have AST/ALT levels proportion of higher than one (P=0.044). Family history of dyslipidemia was a predictor for hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.02), higher prothrombin time levels (P=0.013), lower albumin (P=0.024) and T4 (P=0.043) levels. Family history of hypertension was associated with dysglycemia/diabetes (P=0.038), high ALT (P=0.008), and low TIBC (P=0.007) and albumin levels (P=0.001). Family history for CVD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were of clinical importance in the Iranian patients with NAFLD. We therefore recommend that physicians should precisely get family history of main disorders in all NAFLD patients; and to pay more attention to those having the mentioned family histories. Further studies with larger patient population and prospective approach are needed for confirming our findings.
Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) lipoproteins are proposed as important modified particles triggering pro-inflammatory events through receptor-mediated pathways. We evaluated the circulating ox-LDL level on the concept that the chronic immune events may affect ox-LDL clearance as the vessel stenosis develops in coronary arteries. One hundred sixty five subjects underwent coronary angiography and then, subdivided into four subgroups controls (n=85); SVD, 2VD and 3VD (n=80). The serum ox-LDL level and other biochemical parameters were measured using ELISA method and routine laboratory techniques, respectively. The serum ox-LDL level in the control group (4.81±1.41 mU/mg) was significantly higher than patients (4.28±1.73 mU/mg, P<0.05). The ox-LDL/LDL ratio was conversely reduced with the extent of stenosis as compared with the controls (P<0.05). Furthermore, no difference was observed in the ox-LDL/LDL ratio between the 2VD and 3VD patients. We suggested the atherosclerosis process increases the total clearing capacities of the circulating ox-LDL particles.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading reason of morbidity in older people. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the most common type of operations in world. This study was designed to characterize comparison of early clinical outcome following on pump vs. off pump in patients over 70 years old with triple vessels disease and severe left ventricle dysfunction. 80 patients were divided into two groups: In group A (n=40) on pump CABG was performed with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and cold blood cardioplegic arrest and in group B (n=40) the patients had off pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. Exclusion criteria included emergency or urgent operation, combined valve surgery, history of renal insufficiency (Cr >2 mg/dl), stroke. Early postoperative complications such as occurrence, duration and frequency of recurrence of atrial fibrillation were recorded. All patients underwent Holter monitoring after ICU discharge during their hospital stay. The average age of patients was 79.5±7.5 years. Post operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) occurred in 24 cases (30%); 17 cases (42.5%) related to on pump CABG group and 7 cases (17.5%) related to OPCAB group (P=0.03). The frequency of the recurrence of AF in the on pump group was 3.8±1.3 days and in the off pump group was 2.4±1.1 days (P=0.02). ICU stay in on pump group was 3.6±1.80 days, while for the off pump was 2.5±0.6 days (P=0.001). Also hospital stay duration was 8.5±2.1 days for the on pump group compared to the other group that was 6.34±1.06 days. Off pump in patients over 70 years old with triple vessels disease and severe LV dysfunction is safer than on pump and can reduce POAF, ICU and hospital stay and some early surgical complications.
Transluminal balloon valvuloplasty is an alternative to surgical valvotomy for congenital pulmonary valve stenosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term results (to 13.5 years) of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. From June 1998 to January 2012, percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty for congenital pulmonary valve stenosis was performed in 98 patients (50 males, 48 females, with a median age of 6.75 years) underwent balloon valvuloplasty of pulmonary valve stenosis. Follow-up was performed based on the Doppler echocardiographic data and clinical findings. Forty three of ninety eight patients were 10 years of age or older. The mean peak to peak pressure gradient across pulmonary valve before and immediately after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) was 88.7±36.4 mmHg and 21.8±15.9 mmHg (P<0.001) respectively. Doppler pressure gradient across pulmonary valve before BPV, at 3 month (short term), at 1 year (intermediate term) and long-term follow-up were 93.2±41.3 mmHg, 18.7±15.8 mmHg (P<0.001), 15.8±13.1 mmHg (P<0.001) and 13.6±7.4 mmHg (P<0.017) respectively. Mild pulmonary regurgitation (PR) was observed in 55 (57%) patients immediately after BPV and 30 (31%) patients at late follow up. Rupture of the right ventricular outflow tract was the major complication in two patients with fatal event. Short, intermediate and long-term results of BPV for typical valvular pulmonary stenosis are excellent. Therefore, it can be considered as treatment of choice for patients with typical valvular pulmonary stenosis.
The study was undertaken to answer the question that how many patients with pigmentation of back and arms actually have amyloid deposits in pathology. 44 patients presenting with diffuse pigmentation of back and arms (DPOBA) were selected. Skin biopsies were performed in all cases from the affected sites. On all formalin fixed and paraffin embedded specimens, the following histochemical stains were performed: Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Congo red and immunohistochemical staining using anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. In 9 of 44 cases (20%), amyloid deposits were found. In the remaining 35 cases (80%), H&E, Congo red and immunohistochemical staining failed to show any amyloid deposition. We were unable to find amyloid deposition in most of the patients presented with DPOBA. It seems that the signs may be attributable other disorders with similar clinical but different pathophysiologic aspects.
Anticoagulation drugs are frequently used to prevent deep vein thrombosis in high-risk patients. Subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is increasingly used in both hospitalized patients and outpatient settings. This necessitates familiarity of both health care providers and patients with such treatment and vigilance on possible complications. Here we present a case of hematoma of rectus sheath that occurred following subcutaneous injection of enoxaparin and was successfully treated with conservative management.
The coexistence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and parathyroid adenoma is an uncommon clinical entity. Here, we report a case of MTC, PTC, and parathyroid adenoma diagnosed incidentally on a routine physical examination of the neck for the work-up of diabetes. The patient had neither symptoms of hypercalcemia nor those related to MTC and PTC.
Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare anomaly presenting with the absence of skin. No definite etiology is available. The most common site is the scalp. We present an instance with ACC occurring symmetrically in both sides of the body from chest to flank.
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