A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 50, No 11 (2012)
A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Forty outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were study population of this trial. Subjects were recruited from an outpatient child and adolescent clinic for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. All study subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment using tablet of buspirone at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for < 30kg and 30 mg/day for > 30kg) (group 1) or methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for < 30kg and 30 mg/day for > 30kg (group 2) for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. The principal measure of outcome was the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale IV. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 21 and 42 days after the medication started. Significant differences were observed between the two groups on the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -8.95±8.73 (mean±SD) and -15.60±7.81 (mean±SD) for buspirone and methyphenidate, for Parent ADHD Rating Scale. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -9.80 ±7.06 (mean±SD) and -22.40±9.90 (mean±SD) for buspirone and methyphenidate, respectively for Teacher ADHD Rating Scale. The difference between the buspirone and methylphenidate groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant except for decreased appetite, headache and insomnia that were observed more frequently in the methylphenidate group. The results of this study suggest that administration of buspirone was less effective than methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD.
Linear and cord-like burn scar contractures are commonly treated by severing the scar in a transverse direction and skin grafting or performing Z-plasties. However, skin grafts may result in suboptimal take and contract gradually and the Z-plasty requires undermining flaps in scarred skin which may lead to the distal tip necrosis. In this article the authors present their experience with multiple Y-V plasty technique. From May 2005 to September 2009, 44 linear and narrow cord-like burn contractures in various regions of upper and lower extremities of 32 patients were treated by multiple Y-V plasty technique. The contracted scars were treated successfully in all of the patients. No major post-operative complications or contracture recurrence were observed during the follow up period of 6 to 24 months in this series of patients. By creating a longer length, running Y-V plasty can relax the contracted scar. Considering the advantages and excellent results in the treated patients in this study group, and also other presented series, multiple Y-V plasty can be recommended as a very useful and safe technique for the treatment of linear and cordlike burn contractures.
This study was aimed to evaluate the situation of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Guilan using the screening program and determine the correlation of CH with birth weight, gestational age and seasonality. During 2006 to 2010, in Guilan province, neonatal screening for CH by measurement of serum TSH level was performed in 3-5 days after birth. All neonates with TSH level ≥ 5mu/l were referred to endocrinologists and serum TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. Based on public health data and profiles, total number of newborns, gestational age, route of delivery, birth season and birth weight in all screened neonates was reviewed and for ones with CH, their TSH measurements was also recorded. During 5 years, 119701 neonates were screened and CH was confirmed in 10.8% (221) of the referral cases (prevalence=1:542). No significant statistical difference was seen between gender and birth season among patients with CH and the rest of the population. Interestingly, low birth weight (LBW) (31% vs. 4.9%, P<0.01), postdate delivery (1.4% vs. 0.2%, P<0.01) and macrosomia were more prevalent in CH versus normal population (Odds ratio for post-date delivery was 6.9 and for LBW was 3.2). Rate of normal vaginal delivery (NVD) was significantly higher in neonates with CH compared to normal population (39.2% vs. 29.2%, P=0.01). LBW, postdate delivery and macrosomia are risk factors for CH. No association between sex, birth season or caesarian section delivery was seen.
Maternal vitamin D deficiency is one of the major risk factors for neonatal vitamin D deficiency followed by neonatal hypocalcaemia. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between delayed neonatal hypocalcaemia and maternal vitamin D deficiency. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Target population of this study included all term and preterm neonates with delayed hypocalcaemia (after the first 72 hours of birth) admitted to Ali-Asghar Hospital. The sample size was 100 neonates included in the study. Demographic, clinical and paraclinical data including Ca, P, PTH and level of maternal and neonatal vitamin D were recorded according to patients records. 67 neonates (67%) were term and 33(33%) were preterm neonates. The mean of serum calcium in neonates was 6.49± 0.68mg/dL (in the range of 4.3-7.8 mg/dL). 85% of neonates and 74% of mothers had vitamin D deficiency. 100% of neonates born to mothers with vitamin D deficiency were hypocalcaemia. A statistically significant difference was seen between the mean values of serum Ca (6.67 in term vs. 6.12 in preterm neonates) and vitamin D in term and preterm neonates was 16.34 vs. 20.18 (P= 0.0001 and P=0.01 respectively). Also, a significant correlation was seen between maternal and neonatal level of vitamin D (P=0.0001, r=0.789). With regard to the socio-cultural status in Iran besides women's clothing style and nutritional deficiencies before and during pregnancy, health authorities and policy makers are responsible to focus their serious attention on hypocalcaemia and hypovitaminosis D in neonates.
The aim of this study is determining the prevalence of smoking stages in adolescents of Tabriz city (northwest of Iran) and identifying the personal, environmental, and psychological factors relating to cigarette smoking. Fifty-seven high schools were randomly selected, and 4903 students were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking and the related risk factors. The association of independent variables with cigarette smoking was evaluated using the ordinal logistic regression model. In total, 17.3% of the participants were experimenters (95% CI: 15.8-18.9) and 5.0% were regular smokers (95% CI: 3.7-6.2). The results showed that the male gender (OR=2.92; CI: 1.94-4.77), age (OR=1.27; CI: 1.02-1.64), having general risk taking behavior (OR=1.50; CI: 1.02-2.21), presence of a cigarette smoker in the family (OR=1.78; CI: 1.23-2.54), friendship with close cigarette smoker friends (OR=2.52; CI: 1.65-3.86), substance abuse experience (OR=8.27; CI: 2.61-25.61), attitude toward cigarette smoking (OR=1.22; CI: 1.10-1.27) and positive thinking about cigarette smoking (OR=1.05; CI: 1.01-1.14) are associated to cigarette smoking in adolescents. The cigarette smoking prevalence is minimal in Tabriz city adolescents, especially in girls; but the experimenter prevalence is considerable. Findings of this study justifies adopting more serious measures in the pre-adolescence and adolescence period.
Many factors affect tobacco quit rate. In this study we investigated the abstinence rate after 5 years based on the age of smoking initiation. This pre-post field trial study was conducted on 398 smokers who participated voluntarily in a smoking cessation clinic in 2005. They were followed for 5 years and their success or failure in continuous abstinence was evaluated and recorded in 2010. Three hundred and five participants (76.6%) succeeded at the end of the course. Follow up at the end of 2010 revealed that 111 (27.8%) cases were still maintaining their continuous abstinence after 5 years including 64 men and 47 women. The mean age of smoking initiation in successful and failed subjects was 21.9 and 20.7 years respectively. The age of smoking initiation could be a predictor of maintaining abstinence in the future. Starting smoking at an earlier age could have a negative effect on long-term abstinence.
Current study determined the overall incidence, common causes as well as main predictors of this final diagnosis among neonates admitted to a rural district hospital in Iran. This study was conducted on 699 neonates who were candidate for admission to the NICU. Study population was categorized in the case group, including patients exposed to final diagnosis of neonatal seizures and the control group without this diagnosis. Neonatal seizure was reported as final diagnosis in 25 (3.6%) of neonates. The most frequent discharge diagnosis in the seizure group was neonatal sepsis and in the non-seizure group was respiratory problems. No significant difference was found in early fatality rate between neonates with and without seizures (8.0% vs. 10.1%). Only gestational age <38 week had a relationship with the appearance of neonatal seizure. Low gestational age has a crucial role for predicting appearance of seizure in Iranian neonates.
Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem during neonatal period especially in preterm neonates. Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement (TcB) by special devices had been documented as an effective tool for predicting neonatal jaundice in full term neonate, but for preterm infants the present evidences are controversial. We carried out a prospective study in Shariati Hospital NICU. 126 paired TcB/total serum bilirubin (TSB) measurements were obtained. TcB (on forehead and sternum) were measured using JH2-1A device for every admitted preterm infant who clinically showed jaundice and TSB measurements was obtained within 30 min of TcB. 58 (46%) were male and 68 (54%) were female. The mean gestational age was 31 week and mean birth weight was 1728 ± 60 g. 30 percent of neonates were ill. The mean value obtained by TBS was 8.8 mg/dl and for frontal TcB was 8.2mg/dl and for sternal TcB was 7.4mg/dl. There were good correlation between TBS and TcB and the maximum correlation were seen in 33-37 weeks of gestation and birth weight more than 2500 g with forehead TcB measurement. Healthy preterm infants had significant correlation of TSB and TcB (r=0.56, P<0.001) and ill preterm neonate had r =0.82, P<0.001. The correlation between TBS and TcB with and without phototherapy was r=0.66, P=0.000 and r=0.69, P=0.000 respectively. Although TcB measurement may underestimate TBS but there is significant correlation between TcB and TBS in preterm cases even in ill neonate or who receiving phototherapy. This method can be used for determination of bilirbin level in preterm neonate and reduces the number of blood sampling.
Malpractice in preparation and administration of intravenous (IV) medications has been reported frequently. Inadequate knowledge of nurses has been reported as a cause of such errors. We aimed to evaluate the role of nurses' education via installation of wall posters and giving informative pamphlets in reducing the errors in preparation and administration of intravenous drugs in 2 wards (ICU and surgery) of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. A trained observer stationed in 2 wards in different work shifts. He recorded the nurses’ practice regarding the preparation and administration of IV drugs and scored them before and after the education process. 400 observations were evaluated. Of them, 200 were related to before education and 200 were related to after education. On a 0–10 quality scale, mean ±SD scores of before and after education were determined. Mean ±SD scores of before and after education at the 2 wards were 4.51 (±1.24) and 6.15 (±1.23) respectively. There was a significant difference between the scores before and after intervention in ICU (P<0.001), surgery (P<0.001), and total two wards (P<0.001). Nurses' education by using wall poster and informative pamphlets regarding the correct preparation and administration of IV drugs can reduce the number of errors.
The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6±3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7±0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4±0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1). It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses) to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medical research ethics issues such as plagiarism.
Intussusception is common cause of bowel obstruction in the paediatric age group compared to the elderly population. Many times, The diagnosis may be difficult because of asymptomatic nature of this bowel disorder. We hereby describe the case of a 75-year-old male who presented with lethargy, weakness, loss of movement in the joints and was found to be anemic. The haemoglobin level was low so he was transfused with packed cells. On gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, upper GI bleed was observed. A mass was observed beyond ampulla at the 2nd and 3rd part of the duodenal junction. Computerized tomography (CT) scan also showed a mass at the head of pancreas and the lesion at the left lung. In view of persistent bleed, ‘Whipple's procedure' was performed. Histopathological examination showed small cell carcinoma of the lungs with metastasis to the pancreas and the jejunum. We here discuss the case of intussusception with intestinal metastasis which presented with gastrointestinal bleeding.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) as an inherited connective tissue disorder can affect all tissues that contains type I collagen. Well-known cardiac complications of this disease such as aortic root dilatation, aortic regurgitation and mitral valve prolapse have been rarely reported in the literature. Coronary artery aneurysm is a rare cardiac complication in OI, as reported in a 19 year old female presenting with myocardial infarction and hypotension.
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