A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 52, No 3 (2014)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD, accounting for about half of the attributed deaths. Cholesterol homeostasis is one of the most important factors in atherosclerosis. ATP-Binding cassette transporters cholesterol. Omega (ω) 3 fatty acids are important ligands for regulation of ABC transporters such as ABCG1. Concern has been raised that the low absolute intakes of EPA and high ratios of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFA) to EPA may predispose some individuals to CVD. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is the most abundant ω3 fatty acid in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of EPA on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells. In this study, THP-1 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium, THP-1 monocytes were then differentiated to macrophages with PMA (phorbol myristic acid) and stimulated with 50, 75 and 100 μM of EPA for 24 h at 37°C. We examined the effects of EPA treatment on the expression of ABCG1 gene using Quantitative Real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results, indicate that ABCG1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by 50, 75 and 100 μM EPA fatty acid treatments as compared to the control cells (р = 0.009, р < 0.001 and р = 0.002, respectively). These results suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as EPA have an effect on the cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages, and they can change the expression of ABCG1 gene. It seems that EPA has different effects on gene expression and lipid metabolism.
Antimicrobial resistance in pathogens not only in hospitals but also in the community has become an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of predominant pathogens from hospitalized and outpatients in a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. A total of 820 samples of common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were collected from a major referral and teaching hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran during April 2010 to February 2011. The pattern of antibiotic resistance was determined by disk diffusion test as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI). Gram-negative bacilli were the most isolated pathogens. Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) was the most antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam were the most active antimicrobials against gram-negative bacilli whereas vancomycin was the antimicrobial agent most consistently active against the Gram-positive cocci. Community-acquired organisms were more susceptible to antimicrobial drugs tested than nosocomial isolates. The rates of antibiotic resistance among isolated pathogens in this study were approximately similar to other studies. However, high rates of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp and P. aeruginosa, the most isolated pathogens, indicating that antibiotic policy is urgently needed to prevent the resistance development ago.
The growing number of immunocompromised individuals has increased the incidence of infections caused by Candida species during the recent decades. Typing of C. albicans on the basis of DNA sequences at multiple loci has greatly advanced our knowledge about the epidemiology and phylogeny of candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity, and genetic relationships among C. albicans isolates obtained from HIV patients in Iran. using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. We analyzed 25 C. albicans isolates obtained from HIV positive patients referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS. After diagnostic test and DNA extraction C. albicans isolates were typed using the original MLST scheme explained previously include of six loci: ACC1, VPS13, GLN4, ADP1, RPN2, and SYA1. Fifty one (2.17%) nucleotide sites were found to be polymorphic; all were found to be heterozygous in at least one isolate. For the 25 clinical isolates, 22 diploid sequence types were defined by the genotypes identified from the six loci. The MLST data suggest a relatively high level of divergence in the population structure of C. albicans isolated from HIV infected patients. These findings indicate that in these patients there is a favorable context for the growth of potential pathogenic C. albicans. We found no association between fluconazole resistance, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) receiving and either sequence type or group.
Increases in body mass index (BMI) are reported to influence asthma response to treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and response to treatment in a group of patients that were referred for asthma control. Effectiveness measurements in this analysis included percentage of changes in forced volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced volume capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%). A total of 293 subjects with asthma of both genders and above 18 years of age were divided into the following BMI categories: 107 (36.5%) non-obese (BMI < 25), 186 (63.5%) overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25). Percentage of change was defined as change in variable between baseline and end-of-treatment. Analyses of non-obese vs. overweight/obese asthmatics demonstrated non-significant differences in baseline FEV1 (1.62 ± 0.56 Lit vs. 1.63 ± 0.56 Lit L, P = 0.89); FVC (2.58 ± 0.73 Lit vs. 2.47 ± 0.82 Lit, P = 0.25); and FEF25-75% (1.04 ± 0.55 ml/sec vs. 1.05 ± 0.50 ml/sec, P = 0.47) respectively. Compared with non-obese subjects, in overweight/obese subjects with asthma were less responded to treatment. Percentage changes of FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75%, and FEV1/FVC in non-obese versus obese/overweight patients were: 79.57 ± 55.14 % vs. 62.13 ± 41.72%, P = 0.005; 47.71 ± 33.76% vs. 39.93 ± 28.30%, P = 0.036; 151.98 ± 127.82% vs. 123 ± 91.12%, P = 0.041; 20.54 ± 15.63% vs. 15.63 ± 11.32%, P = 0.005; respectively. Percentage changes of spirometric values to treatment in over weight/obese asthmatic patient were lesser in compared with non-obese subjects.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has also been suggested as an etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in esophageal SCCs in our region with strict contamination control to prevent false positive results. Thirty cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were chosen by simple random selection in a period of two years. PCR for target sequence of HPV L1 gene was performed on nucleic acid extracted from samples by means of GP5+/GP6+ primers. All tissue samples in both case and control groups were negative for HPV-DNA. Although the number of cases in this study was limited, the contribution of HPV in the substantial number of esophageal SCCs in our region is unlikely.
Most patients with gastrointestinal cancers refer to the health centers at advanced stages of the disease and conventional treatments are not significantly effective for these patients. Therefore, using modern therapeutic approaches with lower toxicity bring higher chance for successful treatment and reduced adverse effects in such patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of avocado fruit extracts on inhibition of the growth of cancer cells in comparison with normal cells. In an experimental study, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum extracts of avocado (Persea americana) fruit were prepared. Then, the effects if the extracts on the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated in comparison with the control group using the MTT test in the cell culture medium. Effects of the four extracts of avocado fruit on three cells lines of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma were tested. The results showed that avocado fruit extract is effective in inhibition of cancer cell growth in comparison with normal cells (P<0.05). Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers.
The main objective of this study was to identify the incidence of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia in patients underwent lobectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy. This randomized trial study was performed from May 2010 to July 2011 among 108 consecutive patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Patients were allocated into 3 groups based on the 3 common type of thyroidectomy. Pre and postoperative serum calcium levels were determined by using standard protocol for all patients. All patients' preoperative serum calcium levels were normal. Post-thyroidectomy hypoglycemia occurred in 0%, 8.3% and 8.3% of patients who underwent total hypocalcemia, subtotal thyroidectomy and lobectomy, respectively, which represents 5.6% of all patients who shown hypocalcemia (P=0.58). Serum calcium levels were fall in 93% patients, however within several days were returned to normal ranges. We did not find a significant relation between the hypocalcemia and thyroidectomy types. We recommended determination other alternative factors as a more effective prediction for postoperative hypocalcemia.
We examined the effect of potential interfering factors that play major roles in the outcome of our patients with stomach cancer. 100 consecutive patients diagnosed with gastric cancers were prospectively observed, treated and followed from November 2009 to January. Absence of Helicobacter pylori infection (P=0.027), absence of vascularisation (P<0.001), and undetermined histopathological type of adenocarcinoma (P=0.003) were factors significantly associated with higher grade of gastric lesions. Life tables were used to define survival of gastric cancers. Survival rates of these patients at 1st week, 1st month, 2nd month, 3rd month, and 6th month were 97%, 96%, 91%, 90%, and 82%, respectively. The only determinant of 6 months of survival was age over 68 (P=0.039). Our study confirms our previous knowledge that gastric cancers have unfavorable outcome in Iran.
The gamma irradiation has been used for end sterilization of allograft bones and its effects with a 25 kGy dosage on the osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone allograft powder was studied. This work carried out using an experimental method in an animal model. In this study the demineralized bone allograft powder which had been sterilized and prepared with gamma irradiation in a 25 kGy dosage in 18 hours, was used as a study group and the demineralized bone allograft powder which had been prepared aseptically was used as the reference group. 30 mg of bone powder from each group were implanted into right and left paravertebral muscles of eighteen rats, separately. After four weeks, the implanted samples were harvested with a 0.5 cm border and then the osteoinductivity of implants in two groups were compared with histopathologic studies. In 94.4% of the reference samples a new bone formation was observed. In the study group, this difference was observed only in 27.7% of samples (P<0.002). It appears that using gamma irradiation may lead to a reduction in osteoinduction properties of demineralized bone allograft powder.
Differential diagnosis of lichen planopilaris and discoid lupus erythematosus especially in late stages is a problem for clinicians and pathologists. Our aim was to find discriminator histopathologic findings that help us to achieve definite diagnosis without using immunofluorescence study. The histopathologic findings in 77 cases of lichen planopilaris were compared with those of 26 cases of discoid lupus erythematosus with Hematoxylin & Eosin and especially staining (Alcian blue pH 2.5, Periodic Acid Shiff, Orcein). Final histopathologic diagnosis was based on histologic findings, clinicopathological correlation, past medical history and immunofluorescence studies if were applied before. Then elastic fibers pattern in dermis and follicular sheath with orcein staining were described without having information about final diagnosis. New and subtle presentations of histologic changes were assessed. We compared all histopathologic finding for each staining method. Some histologic changes such as hypergranulosis, epidermal atrophy, mucin deposition, diffuse scar and some other patterns were not specific for any diagnosis. A setting of histopathologic findings and clinicopathological correlation were needed for accurate diagnosis. We had only one specimen for the vertical section, and we had no horizontal sections. Description of elastic fibers pattern in orcein staining may be helpful in achieving a specific diagnosis, but this is not completely reliable, and we had overlap features. Finally, immunofluorescence study may be recommended for suspicious cases.
Recurrent dislocation of patella may occur in patients with ligament laxity. Method of treatment in this condition is controversial but patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is the most accepted method. We present a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and recurrent patellar dislocation who managed successfully by patellofemoral ligament reconstruction.
Herein, a 12-year-old Afghan boy with chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis on the face and verrucous lesions on the body and pleural effusion suspected of having co-existent tuberculosis has been presented. The cutaneous lesions were appeared for five years before his admission. Leishman-Donovan bodies were seen in H&E (Hematoxylin and eosin) slide of skin lesion specimens. The pathogenic species was proved to be Leishmania tropica using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) and Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) were strongly positive. The patient was treated with systemic and intralesional meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) for cutaneous leishmaniasis and then with anti-tuberculosis drugs for pleural effusion. Afterwards, pleural effusion was disappeared and cutaneous leishmaniasis cured.
A pseudo aneurysm results from leakage of blood from an artery after trauma or dehiscence or separation of a surgical anastomosis. The reported rate of pseudo aneurysm in access sites range from 0.88% to 8%. It has some cause like penetrating trauma, blunt trauma and endovascular procedure. The differential diagnoses of this lesion are hematoma, AV fistula, lymphadenopathy, lymphocele, DVT, compartment syndrome, soft tissue tumor. A 16 years old male was referred to our clinic with progressive swelling in his right leg for the past three month. In primary survey (MRI, CT, Bone Scan) patient was diagnosed with soft tissue tumor, but after biopsy and angiography he was diagnosed with pseudo aneurysm of anterior tibialis artery. Despite easy diagnosis of p aneurysm in most cases, the signs and symptoms are more likely to soft tissue mass in rare cases. So pseudo aneurysm should always be considered as one differential diagnosis for soft tissue tumors.
There is no recommendation for the treatment of herpes zoster neuralgia in pregnancy, as it even sometimes needs administration of strong opioids.Here, we report a pregnant woman with severe zoster neuralgia who responded favorably to acetaminophen. Due to the drug's safe profile and good efficacy, acetaminophen can be used as an alternative for herpetic neuralgia in pregnant women. However, controlled studies are still needed.
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